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    Cloud Computing
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    SaaS Model
    PaaS Model
    IaaS Model

    Cloud Management and a Programming Model Case Study
    Lifecycle of cloud services has different stages. A defined lifecycle helps to manage the dynamic 
    nature of the cloud environment. When users or businesses feel the need for some service and 
    ask for it or the service providers identify the requirements for some service themselves that 
    initiates the service lifecycle, as the cloud developers tend to start the development of those 
    services. Different phases of the service lifecycle are shown in Figure 19.6.

    Phase 1: For creation of services, at first, the service templates are to be defined properly. 
    So, in initial phase, new service templates are created or existing templates are modified or 
    deleted. Service instances are then created from the service templates later (during Phase 3).

    Phase 2: This phase is about to develop understanding and managing relationship with 
    consumers with reference to a service. This is usually done through an SLA (Service-Level 
    Agreement) contract.

    Phase 3: In this phase, actual services are created, deleted or modified as per the SLA 
    definition or service contract made in Phase 2. This also includes planning for deployment 
    FIG 19.6: Lifecycle of cloud service
    Service template creation
    and modification
    SLA definition / 
    Service contracts
    Service creation and
    Service optimization and
    Service maintenance
    and governance
    Service retirement
    Consumer requests service
    via self-service portal

    Cloud Computing
    of service instances on the cloud and run-time management of those instances which needs 
    resource provisioning (for execution of the services).

    Phase 4: The main job during this phase is to perform service optimization wherever feasible 
    and service customization wherever necessary after studying the service performances. This 
    can be done by modifying values of certain attributes.

    Phase 5: This is a critical phase after creation (i.e. instantiation) of a service. During this 
    phase, resources and components must be kept under close monitoring to avoid violation 
    of any service agreements including security. Managing the operation of instances, routine 
    maintenance, reporting activities and billing functions are also parts of this phase.

    Phase 6: The last phase deals with service retirement issues. Consumers can request for 
    migration of the system or service contract termination. Other issues like, archiving and 
    data protection are also parts of this phase. The retirement phase is very important as the 
    goal of cloud computing is always to lower resource wastage and optimal use of resources.
    The cloud service lifecycle starts with service template creation and ends with the service 

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    327 chapter 19 Cloud Management and a Programming Model Case Study C

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