# Chapter 4: Python Programming – Basic

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 Chapter 4: Python Programming – Basic Operators An “operator” is defined as the element that can modify an operand’s value. In this example: 3 + 6 = 9, the operands are 3 and 6 while the + symbol is called the operator. This chapter will focus on the fundamental operators used in the Python programming language. Types of Operator Python currently supports these types of operators: Bitwise Operators Identity Operators Arithmetic Operators Logical Operators Membership Operators Relational or Comparison Operators Assignment Operators We will now discuss each operators: Bitwise Operators These operators execute bit by bit operation. If we will assume that x has a value of 60 and y has a value of 13, we will have these binary information: X = 0011 1100 Y= 0000 1101 X and Y = 0000 1100 X | Y = 0011 1101 ~ X = 1100 0011 X * Y = 0011 0001 We will now use these binary data to show the Bitwise operations used in the Python programming language. Operators Definition Examples >> Binary Right Shift The value of the left operand is moved to the right based on the number of bits determined by operand on the right. X >> = 15 (which is 0000 1111) << Binary Left Shift The value of the left operand is moved to the left based on the number identified by the operand on the right. X << 240 (which is 1111 0000) & Binary AND This operator copies and pastes a bit to the end result if it is present in both operands. (X and Y) which is 0000 1100) ^ Binary XOR This operator duplicates a bit if it is present in one operand but not on the other (X ^ Y) = 49 (which is 0011 0001) ~ Complement of Binary Ones This operator is unary and it can flip bits. (~ X) = 61 (which is 1100 0011 in complement of 2’s form because of a marked binary digit) | Binary OR This operator duplicates a bit if it is present in one of the operands. (X | Y) 61 (which is 0011 1101) Download 337.24 Kb.