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B10.0 Storage Controllers and Devices

B10.1 General Storage


All general requirements in B1.0 are included by reference.
All bus-specific requirements in B2.0 are included by reference.
BIOS support for boot devices: see A1.1.4.

B10.1.1 General Storage - Windows Compatibility

B10.1.1.1 Windows XP/Windows 2000: "Storage Devices" in the Windows DDK

[SYS-0025.2; SDG3:147]
B10.1.1.2 Windows 98/Me: "IOS" in the Windows Me DDK

[SYS-0025.6; SDG3:147]
B10.1.1.3 Int 13h Extensions

[BIOS-0011; SDG3:147]

"Int 13 Extension APIs" in the Windows Me DDK.

Option ROM or BIOS supports Int 13 for boot devices.

B10.1.1.4 Windows compatibility and implementation notes

http://www.microsoft.com/hwdev/storage/

B10.1.2 General Storage - Industry Standards

B10.1.2.1 DELETED
B10.1.2.2 ATA/ATAPI-5

[STOR-0347; SDG3:177]
ATA standards: Global Engineering Documents at http://global.ihs.com/.
B10.1.2.3 ATAPI Removable Media Device BIOS Specification (ARMD), V. 1.0

http://www.phoenix.com/products/specs.html
B10.1.2.4 MMC-2 - Multi-Media Command Set-2

[STOR-0342; SDG3:149]
Global Engineering Documents at http://global.ihs.com/ (incorporates information defined in Enhanced Music CD Specification).
B10.1.2.5 SCSI Reduced Block Commands (RBC), NCITS.330:2000)

[STOR-0342; SDG3:149]

Global Engineering Documents at http://global.ihs.com/.


B10.1.2.6 Small Computer Interface (SCSI-2)

[X3.131:1994] standard; Global Engineering Documents at http://global.ihs.com/.
B10.1.2.7 Compaq-Intel-Phoenix BIOS Boot Specification, V.1.01; El Torito—Bootable CD-ROM Format Specification, V.1.0

[BIOS-0005.1; SDG3:12]
http://www.phoenix.com/techs/specs.html
B10.1.2.8 Media Status Notification Support Specification, V. 1.03

[STOR-0342; SDG3:149]
http://www.microsoft.com/hwdev/download/devdes/atamed.rtf; see FAQ B10.1.5.5.
B10.1.2.9 IEEE 1394 storage class devices conform to ANSI standards for SBP-2 with appropriate command set

[1394-0094; SDG3.160]

Appropriate command sets are RBC (Reduced Block Commands) or MMC-2.


B10.1.2.10 Universal Serial Bus Mass Storage Class Specification Overview, Revision 1.0

[STOR-0343; SDG3:158; see also FAQ B10.1.5.6]
B10.1.2.11 NCITS Serial Bus Protocol-2 (SBP-2) transport protocols (ANSI NCITS 3.25-1998)

Global Engineering Documents at http://global.ihs.com/.
B10.1.2.12 SCSI Parallel Interface (SPI-3) [ANSI/NCITS T10-1302D] standard

[SCSI-0104]

Global Engineering Documents at http://global.ihs.com/.


B10.1.2.13 SCSI-3 Medium Changer Commands (SMC), ANSI NCITS.314:1998

Global Engineering Documents at http://global.ihs.com/.

B10.1.3 General Storage - Quality


WHQL Test Specification References:
Chapter 10: ATA/ATAPI Test Specification
B10.1.3.1 Pass all WHQL tests

See B1.3.

Windows XP: See “Storage Controllers and Devices” in the HCT documentation.
B10.1.3.2 SEE B10.1.3.1 and B10.1.4.7
B10.1.3.3 SEE B10.1.3.1

B10.1.4 General Storage - Windows Experience


Design Guideline References:
PC 2001 System Design Guide, Chapter 12, "Storage"
Hardware Design Guide Version 3.0 for Microsoft Windows 2000 Server, Chapter 5
B10.1.4.1 Configuring or adding a device to a system does not require changing jumpers or switches on either device or system board

[SYS-0029.2]
B10.1.4.2 Bootable controller supports El Torito No Emulation mode; option ROM supports Int 13h Extensions

[ATA-0116, 0117; SCSI-0106; SDG3:147]
B10.1.4.3 Removable media devices support media status notification

[STOR-0342; SDG3:149; see also FAQ B10.1.5.5]
B10.1.4.4 Dynamic resource configuration is supported for all devices

[SYS-0029; SDG3:9]
B10.1.4.5 Device driver for partitioned media supports all Windows and Windows 2000 partition types

[STOR-0365]
B10.1.4.6 Controller, hard drive, and CD/DVD devices support bus mastering and UDMA/DMA

[STOR-0341; SDG3:146; see also FAQ B10.1.5.4]

Programmed I/O (PIO) support is allowed only for Compact Flash format storage and similar flash-RAM devices.

All other storage and optical devices must support DMA bus mastering and cannot use PIO.

(Note that USB controls DMA on the host side).


B10.1.4.7 Devices, controllers, and drivers support upgrading the operating system and converting to any Windows-supported file system

  • Windows NT 4.0 > Windows XP/Windows 2000 Upgrade.

  • Windows 98/Me > Windows XP/Windows 2000 Upgrade.

  • FAT16 > FAT32 upgrade; FAT32 > NTFS conversion.
    Removable media with MTBF similar to hard drives also can be converted to NTFS.

B10.1.5 General Storage - FAQs

B10.1.5.1 Current storage FAQs

See http://www.microsoft.com/winlogo/hardware/storage/.
B10.1.5.2 DAC support and PCI storage adapters for large-memory systems [Clarification]

SDG3:30-32]
Requirements for PCI adapters to support the PCI DAC command are defined in A1.1.6. For storage devices, at a minimum this includes adapters implemented in or designed as primary storage components -- RAID, Fibre Channel, high-speed SCSI, and so on -- for systems that support more than 4 GB of system memory.

See "Large Memory Enabled Device Driver Hardware and Software Requirements" in the Windows DDK; design guidelines are summarized at http://www.microsoft.com/hwdev/newPC/PAEdrv.htm


B10.1.5.3 DELETED

FAQ Date: January 31, 2001
B10.1.5.4 Support for ATA Bus Master DMA [Clarification]

[STOR-0341; SDG3:146]

  • Required for ATA controllers.

  • Required for ATA devices, and ATAPI-based hard drives.

  • Recommended for ATAPI peripherals other than hard drives, including CD and DVD devices.

In particular, non-hard disk ATAPI devices (CD, DVD, ZIP, Orb, and magneto-optical devices, and so on) are not required to support Ultra DMA transfers. However, non-hard disk ATAPI devices often share the bus with other devices. Therefore, non-hard-disk ATAPI devices must support ATAPI-5 bus termination schemes such that a device sharing the bus can achieve the bus timing necessary to perform Ultra DMA transfers.

  • Recommended for ATAPI removable media drives.
    FAQ Date: March 5, 1999; June 24, 2000, May 21, 2001
B10.1.5.5 Media status notification [Correction]

[STOR-0342; SDG3:149]

The intent of the requirement for media status notification is for devices to support the commands of the implemented bus interface so the operating system can detect when a media event has taken place. The requirements for removable storage devices are defined in the following table; they apply either to single LUN devices or to devices that are part of a Multiple LUN device.



Device type

Media status notification implementation

All CD or DVD devices (independent of interconnect)

Required. Comply with ANSI NCITS T10 MMC-2 standard for Media Status Event Notification.

ATAPI floppy/optical direct access drives

(PD, MO, removable magnetic floppy or rigid based, and so on)



Required. Comply with either MMC-2 standard or SFF 8070i Version 1.1.

IEEE 1394 storage devices
(non-CD / DVD)

Required. Comply with NCITS Reduced Block Commands (RBC; T10/97-260r0) standard.

ATA and non-ATAPI
(IDE interconnect) storage devices

Required. Comply with Media Status Notification Support, Version 1.03.

Other ATA/ATAPI devices, including tape drives

Recommended. If implemented, comply with Media Status Notification Support Specification, Version 1.03, or SFF 8070i.

Other types of SCSI removable devices

Recommended. If implemented, support based on SCSI Reduced Block Commands (RBC), NCITS.330:2000 is recommended.


Windows XP:  A CD-R/RW drive must support the following Get Event/Status Notification commands:
    Operational Change Request/Notification
    External Request
    Media Request
    Device Busy
[see also FAQ B10.5.5.4]
FAQ Date: March 19, 1999; May 24, 2001
B10.1.5.6 USB mass storage [Logo Program clarification]

USB-based mass storage devices cannot be the primary method of normal system booting. They are expected to be a replacement for booting to load an operating system on the primary boot drive, or as a replacement for legacy floppy drives.
FAQ Date: August 26, 1999

B10.1.R General Storage - Future Requirements


Announcement of additional future requirements will be published at http://www.microsoft.com/winlogo/hardware/storage/.
B10.1.R.1 Devices that write digital content to removable media are capable of both creating and modifying a Desktop.ini file on the media

This future requirement will address the Windows user experience with Autoplay technology.
B10.1.R.2 SCSI Block Commands – 2 (SBC-2), ANSI NCITS T10/1417-D
B10.1.R.3 SCSI Multimedia Commands – 3 (MMC-3), ANSI NCITS T10/1363-D
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