• Dastur natijasi Ishni bajarishga namuna
  • Algoritm Asosiy dastur tanasi - int main() i=0; n
  • Dastur kodi #include #include using namespace std; class node




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    Bog'liq
    5-Laboratoriya ishi. Daraxtsimon ma’lumotlar tuzilmasini tadqiq

    Dastur kodi
    #include
    #include
    using namespace std;
    class node{
    public: int info;
    node *left;
    node *right;
    };
    int k=0;
    int intrave(node *tree){
    if (tree!=NULL){int a=NULL, b=NULL;
    if (tree->left!=NULL){ a=tree->left->info; }
    if (tree->right!=NULL){ b=tree->right->info; }
    cout<info<<"--chapida=>"<"<
    intrave(tree->left);
    intrave(tree->right); }
    return 0;
    }
    int height(node *tree){
    int h1,h2;
    if (tree==NULL) return (-1);
    else {
    h1 = height(tree->left);
    h2 = height(tree->right);
    if (h1>h2) return (1 + h1);
    else return (1 + h2);
    }
    }
    int create_arr(node *tree,int *arr){
    if(!tree) return 0;
    else{
    create_arr(tree->left,arr);
    arr[k++]=tree->info;
    create_arr(tree->right,arr);
    }
    }
    node *new_tree(int *arr, int start, int end)
    {
    if(start>end) return NULL;
    else {
    int mid=(start+end)/2;
    node *tree=new node;
    tree->info=arr[mid];
    tree->left=new_tree(arr,start,mid-1);
    tree->right=new_tree(arr,mid+1,end);
    return tree;
    }
    }
    void vizual(node *tree,int l)
    { int i;
    if(tree!=NULL) {
    vizual(tree->right,l+1);
    for (i=1; i<=l; i++) cout<<" ";
    cout<info<
    vizual(tree->left,l+1);
    }
    }
    int main()
    { int n,key,s; node *tree=NULL,*next=NULL;
    cout<<"n="; cin>>n; int arr[n];
    for(int i=0; i
    node *p=new node;
    node *last=new node;
    cin>>s;
    p->info=s;
    p->left=NULL;
    p->right=NULL;
    if(i==0){tree=p; next=tree; continue; }
    next=tree;
    while(1)
    { last=next;
    if(p->infoinfo)next=next->left;
    else next=next->right;
    if(next==NULL)break; }
    if(p->infoinfo)last->left=p;
    else last->right=p;}
    cout<
    intrave(tree);
    cout<<"\nya'ni\n";
    vizual(tree,0);
    int h=height(tree);
    cout<<"balandligi="<
    create_arr(tree,arr);
    for(int i=0;i
    tree=new_tree(arr,0,k-1);
    vizual(tree,0);
    getch();
    }
    Dastur natijasi


    Ishni bajarishga namuna

    Topshiriq variantlariga o’xshash bitta misolning algoritmi va to’liq dasturini ko’rib chiqaylik.


    Misol: berilgan binar daraxtdan ko’rsatilgankey kalitga mos tugunni o’chirish dasturini tuzing.
    Algoritm
    Asosiy dastur tanasi - int main()

    1. i=0; n – daraxtga kiritiladigan elementlar sonini aniqlash. Daraxt ildizi ko’rsatkichi tree=NULL. Next yangi elementni joylashtiradigan shoxga o’tishda ishlatiladi va last next dan 1 qadam orqada yuradi.

    2. Agar i bo’lsa, daraxtga kiritiladigan navbatdagi elementga qiymat kiritish va uni yangi p element info maydoniga yozish, left va right maydonlarga NULL yozish. Aks holda 8-qadamga o’tish.

    3. Agar tree=NULL bo’lsa, p ni daraxt ildizi qilish, ya’ni tree=p va next=last=p.

    4. Agar p->info next->info dan kichik bo’lsa, chap shoxga o’tish kerak, ya’ni last=next va next=next->left, aks holda o’ng shoxga o’tamiz, ya’ni last=next va next=next->right.

    5. Agar next=NULL bo’lsa, 6-qadamga o’tish, aks holda 4-qadamga o’tish.

    6. Agar p->infoinfo bo’lsa, last->left=p, aks holda last->right=p.

    7. i++, 2-qadamga o’tish.

    8. intrave(tree) funksiyasini ishlatish.

    9. Key kalitga mos elementni daraxtdan o’chiradigan del(tree,key) funksiyasini ishlatish.

    10. Natijaviy daraxtni ko’rikdan o’tkazish uchun intrave(tree) funksiyasini ishlatish va algoritmni yakunlash.

    intrave(tree) funksiyasining ishlash algoritmi

    1. Agar funksiyaning kirishiga berilgan tugun NULL bo’lmasa, 2-qadamga o’tish, aks holda funksiya chaqirilgan joyga qaytib borish.

    2. Agar tugunning chap shoxi tuguni NULL bo’lmasa, uning info maydonini yangi butun toifali a ga o’zlashtirish, aks holda a=0.

    3. Agar tugunning o’ng shoxi tuguni NULL bo’lmasa, uning info maydonini yangi butun toifali b ga o’zlashtirish, aks holda b=0.

    4. Ekranga tugunning info maydoni qiymatini, tugunning chapidagi a va o’ngidagi b ni chiqaramiz.

    5. Endi shu intrave() funksiyasining kirishiga joriy tugunning chap shoxi tugunini berib chaqiramiz, ya’ni yuqoridagi 4 ta amalni joriy tugunning chap shoxidagi tugun ustida bajaramiz.

    6. Endi shu intrave() funksiyasining kirishiga joriy tugunning o’ng shoxi tugunini berib chaqiramiz, ya’ni yuqoridagi 4 ta amalni joriy tugunning o’ng shoxidagi tugun ustida bajaramiz.

    del() funksiyasining ishlash algoritmi
    Funksiyaning kirishiga daraxt ildizi ko’rsatkichi tree va o’chirilishi kerak

    bo’lgan tugunning info maydoni qiymati key beriladi. Daraxtning key kalitli tugunini terminal tugungacha izlaymiz. Dastlab next=tree.



    1. Toki next NULL bo’lguncha, agar next tugunning info maydoni key ga teng bo’lsa, izlayotgan tugunni topdik va uning adresini p ga joylaymiz va 4-qadamga o’tamiz. Agar next NULL bo’lsa, 3-qadamga o’tamiz.

    2. Agar keynext ning infosidan kichik bo’lsa, joriy tugunning chap tomonidagi tugunga o’tamiz, ya’ni next=next->left, aks holda o’ng shoxdagi tugunga o’tamiz. 1-qadamga qaytamiz.

    3. Agar next NULL ga teng bo’lsa, biz izlagan tugun tuzilmada yo’q. Tugunni o’chirish algoritmi tugaydi va dastur bajarilishi o’chirish funksiyasi chaqirilgan joyga qaytib boradi.

    4. Agar p o’chirilayotgan tugunning chap tomonida tugun yo’q bo’lsa (ya’ni p->left=NULL bo’lsa), uning o’ng tomonidagi tugun adresini v ga o’zlashtiramiz.

    5. Agar p o’chirilayotgan tugunning o’ng tomonida tugun yo’q bo’lsa, uning chap tomonidagi tugun adresini v ga o’zlashtiramiz.

    6. Agar p o’chirilayotgan tugunning chapi va o’ngida element mavjud bo’lsa, bu tugunning o’rniga da’vo qiladigan tugunni topish uchun shu tugundan 1 marta o’ngga va oxirigacha chap shox tuguniga o’tamiz. Ya’ni v=p->right, v p ning o’ng tomonida turibdi, t=p va s=v->left, ya’ni s v ning chapida turibdi. Endi to s NULL bo’lguncha chapga ketamiz, undan 1 ta orqada v va v dan 1 ta orqada t keladi. Mana endi biz p ning o’rniga v olib borib qo’yishimiz mumkin.

    7. Agar t NULL bo’lmasa va t p ga teng bo’lmasa (agar p ning bitta farzandi mavjud bo’lsa, uning o’rniga keladigan tugunni izlashga xojat yo’q, chunki uning o’sha farzandi aynan p ning o’rniga joylashadi. Agar o’chirilayotgan p tugunning 2 ta farzandi mavjud bo’lsa, shu shart bajariladi), u holda, p ning o’rniga ketayotgan v tugunning farzandi (agar u mavjud bo’lsa) v ning otasi bo’lmish t ga meros qoldiriladi, ya’ni v->right v ning o’rniga keladi. t->left=v->right. Endigi ish p ning har ikkala tomonidagi tugunlarni v ga o’zlashtiramiz.

    8. Agar t p ga teng bo’lsa (ya’ni p o’chayotgan tugunning o’rniga o’zining

    farzandi kelayotgan bo’lsa), p ning chapidagi tugunni v ning chapiga o’zlashtiramiz.



    1. Mana p tugunning o’rniga v tugun keldi. Endigi vazifa v ni p ning otasi bilan ulash kerak. Buning uchun aniqlash kerak – p tugunning otasi q NULL ga teng emasmi? Agar q NULL bo’lsa, biz daraxt ildizini o’chirgan bo’lamiz. Bu holda daraxt ildizi ko’rsatkichi tree ni v ga tenglab qo’yamiz. Aks holda, 10-qadamga o’tamiz.


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    Dastur kodi #include #include using namespace std; class node

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