• Building a simple APK
  • Building a APK that depends on a static .jar file
  • Building a APK that should be signed with the platform key
  • Building a APK that should be signed with a specific vendor key
  • Adding a prebuilt APK
  • Adding a Static Java Library
  • Android.mk Variables
  • Build Cookbook In this document




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    Build Cookbook

    In this document


    • Simple APK

    • APK Dependent on static .jar file

    • APK signed with the platform key

    • APK that signed with vendor key

    • Prebuilt APK

    • Adding a Static Java Library

    • Android.mk variables

    The Android Build Cookbook offers code snippets to help you quickly implement some common build tasks. For additional instruction, please see the other build documents in this section.

    Building a simple APK


    LOCAL_PATH := $(call my-dir)

    include $(CLEAR_VARS)

     

    # Build all java files in the java subdirectory



    LOCAL_SRC_FILES := $(call all-subdir-java-files)

     

    # Name of the APK to build



    LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME := LocalPackage

     

    # Tell it to build an APK



    include $(BUILD_PACKAGE)

    Building a APK that depends on a static .jar file


    LOCAL_PATH := $(call my-dir)

    include $(CLEAR_VARS)

     

    # List of static libraries to include in the package



    LOCAL_STATIC_JAVA_LIBRARIES := static-library

     

    # Build all java files in the java subdirectory



    LOCAL_SRC_FILES := $(call all-subdir-java-files)

     

    # Name of the APK to build



    LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME := LocalPackage

     

    # Tell it to build an APK



    include $(BUILD_PACKAGE)

    Building a APK that should be signed with the platform key


    LOCAL_PATH := $(call my-dir)

    include $(CLEAR_VARS)

     

    # Build all java files in the java subdirectory



    LOCAL_SRC_FILES := $(call all-subdir-java-files)

     

    # Name of the APK to build



    LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME := LocalPackage

     

    LOCAL_CERTIFICATE := platform



     

    # Tell it to build an APK

    include $(BUILD_PACKAGE)

    Building a APK that should be signed with a specific vendor key


    LOCAL_PATH := $(call my-dir)

    include $(CLEAR_VARS)

     

    # Build all java files in the java subdirectory



    LOCAL_SRC_FILES := $(call all-subdir-java-files)

     

    # Name of the APK to build



    LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME := LocalPackage

     

    LOCAL_CERTIFICATE := vendor/example/certs/app



     

    # Tell it to build an APK

    include $(BUILD_PACKAGE)

    Adding a prebuilt APK


    LOCAL_PATH := $(call my-dir)

    include $(CLEAR_VARS)

     

    # Module name should match apk name to be installed.



    LOCAL_MODULE := LocalModuleName

    LOCAL_SRC_FILES := $(LOCAL_MODULE).apk

    LOCAL_MODULE_CLASS := APPS

    LOCAL_MODULE_SUFFIX := $(COMMON_ANDROID_PACKAGE_SUFFIX)

     

    include $(BUILD_PREBUILT)


    Adding a Static Java Library


    LOCAL_PATH := $(call my-dir)

    include $(CLEAR_VARS)

     

    # Build all java files in the java subdirectory



    LOCAL_SRC_FILES := $(call all-subdir-java-files)

     

    # Any libraries that this library depends on



    LOCAL_JAVA_LIBRARIES := android.test.runner

     

    # The name of the jar file to create



    LOCAL_MODULE := sample

     

    # Build a static jar file.



    include $(BUILD_STATIC_JAVA_LIBRARY)

    Android.mk Variables


    These are the variables that you'll commonly see in Android.mk files, listed alphabetically. First, a note on the variable naming:

    • LOCAL_ - These variables are set per-module. They are cleared by the include $(CLEAR_VARS) line, so you can rely on them being empty after including that file. Most of the variables you'll use in most modules are LOCAL_ variables.

    • PRIVATE_ - These variables are make-target-specific variables. That means they're only usable within the commands for that module. It also means that they're unlikely to change behind your back from modules that are included after yours. This link to the make documentation describes more about target-specific variables.

    • HOST_ and TARGET_ - These contain the directories and definitions that are specific to either the host or the target builds. Do not set variables that start with HOST_ or TARGET_ in your makefiles.

    • BUILD_ and CLEAR_VARS - These contain the names of well-defined template makefiles to include. Some examples are CLEAR_VARS and BUILD_HOST_PACKAGE.

    • Any other name is fair-game for you to use in your Android.mk. However, remember that this is a non-recursive build system, so it is possible that your variable will be changed by another Android.mk included later, and be different when the commands for your rule / module are executed.

    Parameter

    Description

    LOCAL_AAPT_FLAGS




    LOCAL_ACP_UNAVAILABLE




    LOCAL_ADDITIONAL_JAVA_DIR




    LOCAL_AIDL_INCLUDES




    LOCAL_ALLOW_UNDEFINED_SYMBOLS




    LOCAL_ARM_MODE




    LOCAL_ASFLAGS




    LOCAL_ASSET_DIR




    LOCAL_ASSET_FILES

    In Android.mk files that include $(BUILD_PACKAGE) set this to the set of files you want built into your app. Usually:

    LOCAL_ASSET_FILES += $(call find-subdir-assets)



    LOCAL_BUILT_MODULE_STEM




    LOCAL_C_INCLUDES

    Additional directories to instruct the C/C++ compilers to look for header files in. These paths are rooted at the top of the tree. Use LOCAL_PATH if you have subdirectories of your own that you want in the include paths. For example:

    LOCAL_C_INCLUDES += extlibs/zlib-1.2.3


    LOCAL_C_INCLUDES += $(LOCAL_PATH)/src

    You should not add subdirectories of include to LOCAL_C_INCLUDES, instead you should reference those files in the #include statement with their subdirectories. For example:

    #include
    not #include


    LOCAL_CC

    If you want to use a different C compiler for this module, set LOCAL_CC to the path to the compiler. If LOCAL_CC is blank, the appropriate default compiler is used.

    LOCAL_CERTIFICATE




    LOCAL_CFLAGS

    If you have additional flags to pass into the C or C++ compiler, add them here. For example:

    LOCAL_CFLAGS += -DLIBUTILS_NATIVE=1



    LOCAL_CLASSPATH




    LOCAL_COMPRESS_MODULE_SYMBOLS




    LOCAL_COPY_HEADERS

    The set of files to copy to the install include tree. You must also supply LOCAL_COPY_HEADERS_TO.

    This is going away because copying headers messes up the error messages, and may lead to people editing those headers instead of the correct ones. It also makes it easier to do bad layering in the system, which we want to avoid. We also aren't doing a C/C++ SDK, so there is no ultimate requirement to copy any headers.



    LOCAL_COPY_HEADERS_TO

    The directory within "include" to copy the headers listed in LOCAL_COPY_HEADERS to.

    This is going away because copying headers messes up the error messages, and may lead to people editing those headers instead of the correct ones. It also makes it easier to do bad layering in the system, which we want to avoid. We also aren't doing a C/C++ SDK, so there is no ultimate requirement to copy any headers.



    LOCAL_CPP_EXTENSION

    If your C++ files end in something other than ".cpp", you can specify the custom extension here. For example:

    LOCAL_CPP_EXTENSION := .cc

    Note that all C++ files for a given module must have the same extension; it is not currently possible to mix different extensions.


    LOCAL_CPPFLAGS

    If you have additional flags to pass into only the C++ compiler, add them here. For example:

    LOCAL_CPPFLAGS += -ffriend-injection

    LOCAL_CPPFLAGS is guaranteed to be after LOCAL_CFLAGS on the compile line, so you can use it to override flags listed in LOCAL_CFLAGS


    LOCAL_CXX

    If you want to use a different C++ compiler for this module, set LOCAL_CXX to the path to the compiler. If LOCAL_CXX is blank, the appropriate default compiler is used.

    LOCAL_DX_FLAGS




    LOCAL_EXPORT_PACKAGE_RESOURCES




    LOCAL_FORCE_STATIC_EXECUTABLE

    If your executable should be linked statically, set LOCAL_FORCE_STATIC_EXECUTABLE:=true. There is a very short list of libraries that we have in static form (currently only libc). This is really only used for executables in /sbin on the root filesystem.

    LOCAL_GENERATED_SOURCES

    Files that you add to LOCAL_GENERATED_SOURCES will be automatically generated and then linked in when your module is built. See the Custom Tools template makefile for an example.

    LOCAL_INSTRUMENTATION_FOR




    LOCAL_INSTRUMENTATION_FOR_PACKAGE_NAME




    LOCAL_INTERMEDIATE_SOURCES




    LOCAL_INTERMEDIATE_TARGETS




    LOCAL_IS_HOST_MODULE




    LOCAL_JAR_MANIFEST




    LOCAL_JARJAR_RULES




    LOCAL_JAVA_LIBRARIES

    When linking Java apps and libraries, LOCAL_JAVA_LIBRARIES specifies which sets of java classes to include. Currently there are two of these: core and framework. In most cases, it will look like this:

    LOCAL_JAVA_LIBRARIES := core framework

    Note that setting LOCAL_JAVA_LIBRARIES is not necessary (and is not allowed) when building an APK with "include $(BUILD_PACKAGE)". The appropriate libraries will be included automatically.


    LOCAL_JAVA_RESOURCE_DIRS




    LOCAL_JAVA_RESOURCE_FILES




    LOCAL_JNI_SHARED_LIBRARIES




    LOCAL_LDFLAGS

    You can pass additional flags to the linker by setting LOCAL_LDFLAGS. Keep in mind that the order of parameters is very important to ld, so test whatever you do on all platforms.

    LOCAL_LDLIBS

    LOCAL_LDLIBS allows you to specify additional libraries that are not part of the build for your executable or library. Specify the libraries you want in -lxxx format; they're passed directly to the link line. However, keep in mind that there will be no dependency generated for these libraries. It's most useful in simulator builds where you want to use a library preinstalled on the host. The linker (ld) is a particularly fussy beast, so it's sometimes necessary to pass other flags here if you're doing something sneaky. Some examples:

    LOCAL_LDLIBS += -lcurses -lpthread


    LOCAL_LDLIBS += -Wl,-z,origin

    LOCAL_MODULE

    LOCAL_MODULE is the name of what's supposed to be generated from your Android.mk. For exmample, for libkjs, the LOCAL_MODULE is "libkjs" (the build system adds the appropriate suffix -- .so .dylib .dll). For app modules, use LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME instead of LOCAL_MODULE.

    LOCAL_MODULE_PATH

    Instructs the build system to put the module somewhere other than what's normal for its type. If you override this, make sure you also set LOCAL_UNSTRIPPED_PATH if it's an executable or a shared library so the unstripped binary has somewhere to go. An error will occur if you forget to.

    See Putting modules elsewhere for more.



    LOCAL_MODULE_STEM




    LOCAL_MODULE_TAGS

    Set LOCAL_MODULE_TAGS to any number of whitespace-separated tags.

    This variable controls what build flavors the package gets included in. For example:



    • user: include this in user/userdebug builds

    • eng: include this in eng builds

    • tests: the target is a testing target and makes it available for tests

    • optional: don't include this

    LOCAL_NO_DEFAULT_COMPILER_FLAGS




    LOCAL_NO_EMMA_COMPILE




    LOCAL_NO_EMMA_INSTRUMENT




    LOCAL_NO_STANDARD_LIBRARIES




    LOCAL_OVERRIDES_PACKAGES




    LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME

    LOCAL_PACKAGE_NAME is the name of an app. For example, Dialer, Contacts, etc.

    LOCAL_POST_PROCESS_COMMAND

    For host executables, you can specify a command to run on the module after it's been linked. You might have to go through some contortions to get variables right because of early or late variable evaluation:

    module := $(HOST_OUT_EXECUTABLES)/$(LOCAL_MODULE)


    LOCAL_POST_PROCESS_COMMAND := /Developer/Tools/Rez -d __DARWIN__ -t APPL\
           -d __WXMAC__ -o $(module) Carbon.r

    LOCAL_PREBUILT_EXECUTABLES

    When including $(BUILD_PREBUILT) or $(BUILD_HOST_PREBUILT), set these to executables that you want copied. They're located automatically into the right bin directory.

    LOCAL_PREBUILT_JAVA_LIBRARIES




    LOCAL_PREBUILT_LIBS

    When including $(BUILD_PREBUILT) or $(BUILD_HOST_PREBUILT), set these to libraries that you want copied. They're located automatically into the right lib directory.

    LOCAL_PREBUILT_OBJ_FILES




    LOCAL_PREBUILT_STATIC_JAVA_LIBRARIES




    LOCAL_PRELINK_MODULE




    LOCAL_REQUIRED_MODULES

    Set LOCAL_REQUIRED_MODULES to any number of whitespace-separated module names, like "libblah" or "Email". If this module is installed, all of the modules that it requires will be installed as well. This can be used to, e.g., ensure that necessary shared libraries or providers are installed when a given app is installed.

    LOCAL_RESOURCE_DIR




    LOCAL_SDK_VERSION




    LOCAL_SHARED_LIBRARIES

    These are the libraries you directly link against. You don't need to pass transitively included libraries. Specify the name without the suffix:

    LOCAL_SHARED_LIBRARIES := \


        libutils \
        libui \
        libaudio \
        libexpat \
        libsgl

    LOCAL_SRC_FILES

    The build system looks at LOCAL_SRC_FILES to know what source files to compile -- .cpp .c .y .l .java. For lex and yacc files, it knows how to correctly do the intermediate .h and .c/.cpp files automatically. If the files are in a subdirectory of the one containing the Android.mk, prefix them with the directory name:

    LOCAL_SRC_FILES := \


        file1.cpp \
        dir/file2.cpp

    LOCAL_STATIC_JAVA_LIBRARIES




    LOCAL_STATIC_LIBRARIES

    These are the static libraries that you want to include in your module. Mostly, we use shared libraries, but there are a couple of places, like executables in sbin and host executables where we use static libraries instead.

    LOCAL_STATIC_LIBRARIES := \


        libutils \
        libtinyxml

    LOCAL_UNINSTALLABLE_MODULE




    LOCAL_UNSTRIPPED_PATH

    Instructs the build system to put the unstripped version of the module somewhere other than what's normal for its type. Usually, you override this because you overrode LOCAL_MODULE_PATH for an executable or a shared library. If you overrode LOCAL_MODULE_PATH, but not LOCAL_UNSTRIPPED_PATH, an error will occur.

    See Putting modules elsewhere for more.



    LOCAL_WHOLE_STATIC_LIBRARIES

    These are the static libraries that you want to include in your module without allowing the linker to remove dead code from them. This is mostly useful if you want to add a static library to a shared library and have the static library's content exposed from the shared library.

    LOCAL_WHOLE_STATIC_LIBRARIES := \


        libsqlite3_android

    LOCAL_YACCFLAGS

    Any flags to pass to invocations of yacc for your module. A known limitation here is that the flags will be the same for all invocations of YACC for your module. This can be fixed. If you ever need it to be, just ask.

    LOCAL_YACCFLAGS := -p kjsyy



    OVERRIDE_BUILT_MODULE_PATH




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