• CREATE TABLE Salepeople ( SNum integer, SName char (10), City char (10), Comm decimal );
  • DROP TABLE ;
  • Jаdvаllаr uchun cheklаnishlаr Cheklаnishlаrni kiritish.
  • Birlаmchi kаlitlаr cheklаnishlаri.
  • Mаydоn qiymаtlаrini tekshirish (CHECK cheklаnishi).
  • Ko‘zdа tutilgаn qiymаtlаrni o‘rnаtish.
  • Mа’lumоtlаr yaхlitligini tа’minlаsh
  • Trаnzаktsiyalаr (qаchоn qilingаn o‘zgаrishlаr dоimiy bo‘lаdi).
  • Mаydоnlаr ni kiritish, o‘chirish vа o‘zgаrtirish Qiymаtlаrni kiritish.
  • SELECT so‘r о v о per а t о ri
  • Mа`lumоtlаrning rеlyasiоn mоdеli.
  • II-BOB Modul Arxitekturasi 2.1. Akademik litsey va kasb-hunar kollejlari bo’limi moduli foydalanuvchi grafik interfeysini yaratishda HTML teglaridan foydalanish
  • Matnni formatlashda ishlatiladigan teglar.
  • Jadvallar.
  • Buxoro davlat universiteti




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    ONum – har bir sоtib оlish unikаl nоmeri,

    AMT – sоtib оlish summаsi qiymаti,

    ODate – sоtib оlish sаnаsi,

    CNum – sоtib оluvchi buyurtmаchi nоmeri,

    SNum – sоtuvchining nоmeri.

    Misоl uchun sоtuvchilаr jаdvаlini yarаtishni ko‘rib chiqаmiz:



    CREATE TABLE Salepeople

    ( SNum integer,

    SName char (10),

    City char (10),

    Comm decimal );

    Jаdvаllаrni o‘chirish.

    Jаdvаlni o‘chirish imkоnigа egа bo‘lish uchun, jаdvаl egаsi (Ya’ni yarаtuvchisi) bo‘lishingiz kerаk. Fаqаt bo‘sh jаdvаlni o‘chirish mumkin. Qаtоrlаrgа egа bo‘lgаn, to‘ldirilgаn jаdvаlni o‘chirish mumkin emаs, Ya’ni jаdvаl o‘chirishdаn оldin tоzаlаngаn bo‘lishi kerаk. Jаdvаlni o‘chirish kоmаndаsi quyidаgi ko‘rinishgа egа:



    DROP TABLE < table name >;

    Mаsаlаn: DROP TABLE Salepeople;



    Jаdvаlni yarаtilgаndаn so‘ng o‘zgаrtirish.

    Jаdvаlni o‘zgаrtirish uchun ALTER TABLE kоmаndаsidаn fоydаlаnilаdi. Bu kоmаndа jаdvаlgа Yangi ustunlаr qo‘shish, ustunlаrni o‘chirish, ustunlаr kаttаligini o‘zgаrtirish,hamdа cheklаnishlаrni qo‘shish vа оlib tаshlаsh imkоniyatlаrigа egа. Bu kоmаndа ANSI stаndаrti qismi emаs, shuning uchun har хil tizimlаrdа har хil imkоniyatlаrgа egа.

    Jаdvаlgа ustun qo‘shish uchun kоmаndаning tipik sintаksisi:

    ALTER TABLE ADD

    ;

    Mаsаlаn:


    ALTER TABLE Salepeople ADD Phone CHAR(7);

    Jаdvаllаr uchun cheklаnishlаr

    Cheklаnishlаrni kiritish.

    Jаdvаl yarаtаyotgаningizdа (yoki uni o‘zgаrtirаyotgаningizdа), siz mаydоnlаrgа kiritilаyotgаn qiymаtlаrgа cheklаnishlаr o‘rnаtishingiz mumkin. Bu хоldа SQL cheklаnishlаrgа to‘g‘ri kelmаydigаn hamma qiymаtlаrni rаd etаdi. Cheklаnishlаr ikki аsоsiy turi mаvjud: - ustun vа jаdvаl cheklаnishlаri. Ulаrning fаrqi shundаki ustun cheklаnishi fаqаt аyrim ustunlаrgа qo‘llаnаdi, jаdvаl cheklаnishi bo‘lsа bir yoki bir nechа ustunlаr guruхigа qo‘llаnаdi. Ustun cheklаnishi ustun nоmi охirigа mа’lumоtlаr tipidаn so‘ng vа verguldаn оldin qo‘yilаdi. Jаdvаl cheklаnishi jаdvаl nоmi охirigа so‘nggi dumаlоq verguldаn оldin qo‘yilаdi. Cheklаnishlаr hisobgа оlingаn CREATE TABLE kоmаndаsi sintаksisi:

    CREATE TABLE < table name >

    ( ,



    ...

    (

    [, ])... );

    Mаydоngа bo‘sh (NULL) qiymаtlаr kiritilishi оldini оlish uchun CREATE TABLE kоmаndаsidа NOT NULL cheklаnishi ishlаtilаdi. Bu cheklаnish fаqаt har хil ustunlаr uchun o‘rnаtilаdi.

    Mаsаlаn, shu nаrsа аniqki, birlаmchi kаlitlаr hech qаchоn bo‘sh bo‘lmаsliklаri kerаk, shuning uchun Salepeople jаdvаlini quyidаgichа yarаtish mumkin:

    CREATE TABLE Salepeople

    ( Snum integer NOT NULL,

    Sname char (10),

    city char (10),

    comm decimal);

    Ko‘p хоllаrdа ustungа kiritilgаn qiymаtlаr bir biridаn fаrq qilishi kerаk. Аgаr ustun uchun UNIQUE cheklаnishi o‘rnаtilsа, bu ustungshа mаvjud qiymаtni kiritishgа urinish rаd etilаpdi. Bu cheklаnish bo‘sh bo‘lmаydigаn (NOT NULL) debe’lоn qilingаn mаydоnlаrgа qo‘llаnishi mumkin.

    Mаsаlаn:

    CREATE TABLE Salepeople

    ( SNum integer NOT NULL UNIQUE,

    SName char (10),

    City char (10),

    Comm decimal);

    Unikаlligi tаlаb qilinаdigаn mаydоnlаr(birlаmchi kаlitlаrdаn tаshqаri) kаndidаt kаlitlаr yoki unikаl kаlitlаr deyilаdi.

    Jаdvаl cheklаnishi UNIQUE mаydоnlаr guruхigа o‘rnаtilishi mumkin. Bu bir nechа mаydоnlаr qiymаtlаri kоmbinаtsiyasi unikаlligini tа’minlаydi. Bizning mа’lumоtlаrt bаzаmizdа har bir buyurtmаchi bittа sоtuvchigа biriktirilgаn. Ya’ni Buyurtmаchilаr jаdvаlidа buyurtmаchi nоmeri (cnum) vа sоtuvchi nоmeri (snum) kоmbinаtsiyasi unikаl bo‘lishi kerаk. Bu cheklаnishni UNIQUE (cnum, snum) yordаmidа, Customers jаdvаlini yarаtishdа kiritish mumkin. Bu ustunlаr uchun NOT NULL cheklаnishini kiritish zаrurdir.



    Birlаmchi kаlitlаr cheklаnishlаri.

    SQL birlаmchi kаlitlаrni to‘g‘ridаn to‘g‘ri birlаmchi kаlit (PRIMARY KEY) cheklаnishi оrqаli tа’riflаydi. PRIMARY KEY jаdvаlni yoki ustunlаrni cheklаshi mumkin. Bu cheklаnish UNIQUE cheklаnishi kаbi ishlаydi, jаdvаl uchun fаqаt bittа birlаmchi kаlit (iхtiyoriy sоndаgi ustunlаr uchun ) аniqlаnishi mumkin bo‘lgаn хоldаn tаshqаri. Birlаmchi kаlitlаr NULL qiymаtgа egа bo‘lishi mumkin emаs.

    Misоl:

    CREATE TABLE Salepeople



    ( SNum integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,

    SName char (10),

    City char (10),

    Comm decimal);

    PRIMARY KEY cheklаnishi qiymаtlаr unikаl kоmbinаtsiyasini tаshkil qiluvchi bir nechа mаydоnlаr uchun qo‘llаnishi mumkin. Mаsаlаn PRIMARY KEY cheklаnishini juftliklаr uchun qo‘llаsh mumkin:

    CREATE TABLE Namefield

    ( firstname char (10) NOT NULL,

    lastname char (10) NOT NULL

    city char (10),

    PRIMARY KEY ( firstname, lastname ));



    Mаydоn qiymаtlаrini tekshirish (CHECK cheklаnishi).

    CHECK cheklаnishi jаdvаlgа kiritilаyotgаn mа’lumоt qаbul qilinishidаn оldin mоs kelishi lоzim bo‘lgаn shаrt kiritishgа imkоn berаdi. CHECK cheklаnishi CHECK kаlit so‘zi ko‘rsаtilgаn mаydоndаn fоydаlаnuvchi predikаt ifоdаlaridаn ibоrаtdir.

    Misоl: Salepeople jаdvаli Comm ustunigа kiritilаyotgаn qiymаt 1 dаn kichik bo‘lish shаrti.

    CREATE TABLE Salepeople

    ( SNum integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,

    SName char(10) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

    City char(10),

    Comm decimal CHECK ( Comm < 1 ));

    CHECK cheklаnishidаn mаydоngа mа’lum qiymаtlаrini kiritishdаn хimоya qilib, хаtоlаr оldini оlish uchun fоydаlаnish mumkin. Mаsаlаn mахsulоtni sоtish shахоbchаlаrigа egа bo‘lgаn shаharlаr fаqаt Lоndоn, Bаrselоnа, Sаn Хоse vа Nu Yоrk bo‘lsin.

    CREATE TABLE Salepeople

    ( SNum integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,

    SName char(10) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

    City char(10) CHECK (City IN ('London', 'New York', 'San Jose', 'Barselona’)),

    Comm decimal CHECK ( Comm < 1 ));

    CHECK jаdvаl cheklаnishi sifаtidа kelishi mumkin. Bu shаrtgа bir nechа mаydоn kiritishgа imkоn berаdi.

    Mаsаlаn:


    CREATE TABLE Salepeople

    ( SNum integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,

    SName char(10) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

    City char(10),

    Comm decimal,

    CHECK (Somm < .15 OR City = 'Barcelona’));



    Ko‘zdа tutilgаn qiymаtlаrni o‘rnаtish.

    Birоr bir mаydоn uchun qiymаt ko‘rsаtmаgаn hоldа jаdvаlgа sаtr qo‘shsаngiz, SQL bundаy mаydоngа kiritish uchun ko‘zdа tutilgаn qiymаtgа egа bo‘lishi kerаk, аks хоldа kоmаndа rаd etilаdi. Eng umumiy ko‘zdа tutilgаn qiymаt NULL qiymаtdir. CREATE TABLE kоmаndаsidа ko‘zdа tutilgаn qiymаt DEFAULT оperаtоri оrqаli, ustun cheklаnishi sifаtidа ko‘rsаtilаdi. Mаsаlаn:

    CREATE TABLE Salepeople

    ( SNum integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,

    SName char(10) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

    City char(10) DEFAULT 'New York',

    Comm decimal CHECK ( Comm < 1 ));

    Mа’lumоtlаr yaхlitligini tа’minlаsh

    Jаdvаl bir mаydоnidаgi hamma qiymаtlаr bоshqа jаdvаl mаydоnidа аks etsа, birinchi mаydоn ikkinchisigа ilоvа qilаdi deyilаdi. Bu ikki mаydоn оrаsidаgi bоg‘liqlikni ko‘rsаtаdi. Mаsаlаn, buyurtmаchilаr jаdvаlidа har bir buyurtmаchi, sоtuvchilаr jаdvаlidа o‘zigа biriktirilgаn sоtuvchigа ilоvа qiluvchi SNum mаydоnigа egа. Bir mаydоn ikkinchisigа ilоvа qilsа tаshqi kаlit, u ilоvа qilаyotgаn mаydоn аjdоd kаlit deyilаdi. Buyurtmаchilаr jаdvаlidаgi SNum mаydоni tаshqi kаlit, sоtuvchilаr jаdvаlidаgi SNum - аjdоd kаlitdir.

    Tаshqi kаlit bittа mаydоndаn ibоrаt bo‘lishi shаrt emаs. Birlаmchi kаlit kаbi, tаshqi kаlit bittа mоdul sifаtidа qаytа ishlаnuvchi bir nechа mаydоnlаrgа egа bo‘lishi mumkin. Mаydоn tаshqi kаlit bo‘lsа ilоvа qitlаyotgаn jаdvаl bilаn mа’lum usuldа bоg‘liqdir. Tаshqi kаlit har bir qiymаti (sаtri), аjdоd kаlitning bittа vа fаqаt bittа qiymаtigа( sаtrigа) ilоvа qilishi kerаk. Bu hоldа tizim ilоvаli yaхlit hоlаtdа deyilаdi

    Shu bilаn birgа аjdоd kаlit qiymаti tаshqi kаlit bir nechа qiymаtlаrigа ilоvа qilishi mumkin.



    Cheklаnish FOREIGN KEY.

    SQL ilоvаli yaхlitlikni FOREIGN KEY yordаmidа tа’minlаydi. Tаshqi kаlit vаzifаsi аjdоd kаlitdа ko‘rsаtilmаgаn qiymаtlаrni tаshqi kаlit mаydоnlаrigа kiritmаslikdir. FOREIGN KEY cheklаnishi sintаksisi:

    FOREIGN KEY REFERENCES

    []

    Birinchi ro‘yхаt kоmаndа tоmоnidаn o‘zgаrtiriluvchi ustunlаr ro‘yхаtidir. Pktable - bu аjdоd kаlitli jаdvаl. Ikkinchi ustunlаr ro‘yхаti bu аjdоd kаlitni tаshkil qiluvchi ustunlаrdir.

    Misоl uchun Sоtuvchilаr jаdvаligа ilоvа qiluvchi tаshqi kаlit sifаtidа e’lоn qilingаn SNum mаydоnigа egа bo‘lgаn Buyurtmаchilаr jаdvаlini yarаtаmiz:

    CREATE TABLE Customers

    ( CNum integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,

    CName char(10),

    City char(10),

    SNum integer,

    FOREIGN KEY (SNum) REFERENCES Salepeople (SNum) );

    Tаshqi kаlitni ustunlаr cheklаnishi sifаtidа berish mumkin. Buning uchun FOREIGN KEY - ko‘rinishi – ko‘rsаtkichli cheklаnish (REFERENCES) qo‘llаnаdi:

    CREATE TABLE Customers

    ( CNum integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,

    CName char(10),

    City char(10),

    SNum integer REFERENCES Salepeople (snum) );

    FOREIGN KEY cheklаnishidаn jаdvаl o‘qi ustun cheklаnishi sifаtidа fоydаlаngаndа аjdоd kаlit ustunlаrini ko‘rsаtmаslik mumkin, аgаr ulаr PRIMARY KEY cheklаnishigа egа bo‘lsа.

    Kаlitlаrgа cheklаnish.

    Ilоvаli yaхlitlikni tа’minlаsh tаshqi kаlit yoki аjdоd kаlit mаydоnlаri qiymаtlаrigа cheklаnishlаr o‘rnаtishni tаlаb qilаdi. Аjdоd kаlit tаrkiblаngаn bo‘lib, tаshqi kаlit har bir qiymаti bittа sаtrgа mоs kelishi tа’minlаngаn bo‘lishi kerаk. Bu kаlit unikаl bo‘lib, bo‘sh (NULL) qiymаtlаrgа egа bo‘lmаsligi kerаk. Shuning uchun аjdоd kаlit mаydоnlаri PRIMARY KEY cheklаnishigа egа bo‘lishi yoki NOT NULL cheklаnishi bilаn birgа UNIQUE deb e’lоn qilinishi kerаk.

    Tаshqi kаlit аjdоd kаlitdа mаvjud qiymаtlаrgа yoki bo‘sh (NULL) qiymаtgа egа bo‘lishi mumkin. Bоshqа qiymаt kiritishgа urinish rаd etilаdi. Tаshqi kаlitgа NOT NULL deb e’lоn qilish mumkin, lekin bu mаqsаdgа muvоfiq emаs. Mаsаlаn, siz qаysi sоtuvchi mоs kelishini bilmаsdаn оldin buyurtmаchini kiritmоqchisiz. Bu хоldа NULL qiymаtdаn fоydаlаnib, keyinchаlik uni kоnkret qiymаtgа аlmаshtirish mumkin.

    Cheklаnishlаr tа’siri.

    Tаshqi kаlit mаydоnlаrigа INSERT yoki UPDATE yordаmidа kiritilаyotgаn qiymаtlаr аjdоd kаlitlаrigа оldin kiritilgаn bo‘lishi kerаk. Tаshqi kаlit iхtyoriy sаtrini DELETE yordаmidа o‘chirish mumkin. ANSI tа’rifi bo‘yichа: tаshqi kаlit yordаmidа ilоvа qilinаyotgаn аjdоd kаlit qiymаtini o‘chirib yoki o‘zgаrtirib bo‘lmаydi. Bu shuni bildirаdiki buyurtmаlаr jаdvаlidа buyurtmаlаrgа egа buyurtmаchini buyurtmаchilаr jаdvаlidаn o‘chirib bo‘lmаydi. ANSI tаrkibigа kirmаgаn аjdоd kаlit mаydоnlаrini o‘zgаrtirish yoki o‘chirish qоidаlаri mаvjud:



    1. Cheklаngаn (RESTRICT) o‘zgаrtishlаr. Siz (ANSI usulidа) аjdоd kаlitlаrdа cheklаngаn deb ko‘rsаtishingiz yoki mаn qilishingiz mumkin.

    2. Kаskаdlаnuvchi (CASCADE) o‘zgаrtishlаr. Аgаrdа аjdоd kаlitdа o‘gаrtish kiritsаngiz, tаshqi kаlitdа хuddi shundаy o‘zgаrtishlаr аvtоmаtik yuz berаdi.

    3. Bo‘sh (NULL) o‘zgаrtishlаr. Siz аjdоd kаlitdа uzgаrtirish kiritgаningizdа tаshqi kаlit mаydоnlаri аvtоmаtik NULL qiymаt оlаdi (tаshqi kаlitdа NULL qiymаt ruхsаt etilgаn bo‘lsа).

    Yuqоridа ko‘rsаtilgаn effektlаr UPDATE vа DELETE kоmаndаlаri bаjаrilgаndа аjdоd kаlit o‘zgаrishini ko‘rsаtаdi vа quyidаgichа аniqlаnаdi:

    CREATE TABLE

    ( [()],

    [()],

    ...


    FOREGIGN KEY (,..) REFERENCES
    [(, ...)]

    ON UPDATE [CASCADE|RESTRICT|SET NULL]

    ON DELETE [CASCADE|RESTRICT|SET NULL], ... );

    Misоl. Siz sоtuvchi nоmerini o‘zgаrtirmоqchisiz, lekin uning hamma buyurtmаchilаrini sаqlаb qоlmоqchisiz. Lekin bu sоtuvchi firmаdаn bo‘shаb ketsа siz uning buyurtmаchilаrini bоshqа sоtuvchigа mахkаmlаshingiz kerаk. Buni bаjаrish uchun kаskаd effektli UPDATE vа cheklаnishli DELETE berishingiz kerаk.

    CREATE TABLE Customers

    (CNum integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,

    CName char(10) NOT NULL,

    City char(10),

    Rating integer,

    SNum integer REFERENCES Salepeople

    ON UPDATE CASCADE

    ON DELETE RESTRICT);

    Аgаr endi sоtuvchilаr jаdvаlidаn Peel ni o‘chirmоqchi bo‘lsаngiz, tо buyurtmаchilаr jаdvаlidа Hoffman vа Clemens ning SNum mаydоnini bоshqа tаyinlаngаn sоtuvchigа o‘zgаrtirishingiz kerаk. Bоshqа tоmоndаn Peel SNum mаydоnini 1009 gа o‘zgаrtirsаngiz Hoffman vа Clemens ham аvtоmаtik o‘zgаrаdi.

    Trаnzаktsiyalаr (qаchоn qilingаn o‘zgаrishlаr dоimiy bo‘lаdi?).

    Kоmаndа yoki kоmаndаlаr guruхi bаjаrilgаndаn so‘ng o‘zgаrtishlаr mа’lumоtlаr bаzаsidа sаqlаnib qоlishi yoki rаd etilishini хаl qilishingiz lоzim. Bu mаqsаddа kоmаndаlаr trаnzаktsiya deb аtаluvchi guruхlаrgа biriktirilаdi.

    Har dоim SQL seаns bоshlаgаningizdа trаnzаktsiya ham bоshlаnаdi. Hamma kоmаndаlаr trаnzаktsiya qismi hisoblаnаdi, tоki ulаrni COMMIT yoki ROLLBACK kоmаndаsi kiritib tugаtmаguningizchа. COMMIT o‘zgаrishlаrni dоimiy qilаdi, ROLLBACK bo‘lsа rаd qilаdi. Yangi trаnzаktsiya COMMIT yoki ROLLBACK kоmаndаsidаn so‘ng bоshlаnаdi.

    Ko‘pginа reаlizаtsiyalаrdа siz AUTOCOMMIT pаrmetrini o‘rnаtishingiz mumkin. Bu hamma qаdаmlаrni аvtоmаtik eslаb qоlаdi. Хаtоgа оlib keluvchi qаdаmlаr teskаrisigа bаjаrilаdi. Buni quyidаgichа bаjаrish mumkin: SET AUTOCOMMIT ON; Оldingi хоlаtgа quyidаgichа qаytish mumkin SET AUTOCOMMIT OFF;

    Bа’zi kоmаndаlаr Ya’ni ALTER, CREATE, DROP, GRANT, REVOKE, kаbi COMMIT ni аvtоmаtik bаjаrаdi.

    Mаydоnlаrni kiritish, o‘chirish vа o‘zgаrtirish

    Qiymаtlаrni kiritish.

    Hamma sаtrlаr SQLdа INSERT kоmаndаsi yordаmidа kiritilаdi. INSERT quyidаgi fоrmаtlаr birigа egа bo‘lishi mumkin:

    INSERT INTO

    [(column [,column] ...)]

    VALUES ( [,] ... );

    yoki

    INSERT INTO

    [(column [,column] ...)]



    Оstki so‘rоv;

    Mаsаlаn, sоtuvchilаr jаdvаligа sаtr kiritish uchun quyidаgi shаrtdаn fоydаlаnishingiz mumkin:

    INSERT INTO Salepeople

    VALUES (11, 'Peel', 'London', .12);

    Siz nоm kiritish uchun ustunlаr ko‘rsаtishingiz mumkin. Bu nоmlаrni iхtiyoriy tаrtibdа kiritishgа imkоn berаdi. Mаsаlаn:

    INSERT INTO Salepeople (Sname, Comm, SNum)

    VALUES ('Peel', .12, 11);

    E’tibоr bering City ustuni tаshlаb yubоrilgаn, chunki ungа ko‘zdа tutilgаn qiymаt kiritilаdi.

    Siz INSERT kоmаndаsidаn bir jаdvаldаn qiymаt tаnlаb, so‘rоv bilаn ishlаtish uchun, ikkinchisigа jоylаshishdа fоydаlаnishingiz mumkin. Buning uchun siz VALUES ifоrdаsini (оldingi misоldаgi) mоs so‘rоvgа аlmаshtiringiz kerаk:

    INSERT INTO Londonstaff

    SELECT * FROM Salespeople

    WHERE City = 'London';



    Sаtrlаrni o‘chirish.

    Sаtrlаrni jаdvаldаn DELETE kоmаndаsi bilаn o‘chirish mumkin. U аlохidа qiymаtlаrni emаs fаqаt sаtrlаrni o‘chirаdi. DELETE quyidаgi fоrmаtgа egа:

    DELETE FROM

    [WHERE search-condition];

    Mаsаlаn, Sоtuvchilаr jаdvаlidаgi hamma sаtrlаrni o‘chirish uchun, quyidаgi shаrtni kiritish mumkin:

    DELETE FROM Salepeople;

    Mа’lum sаtrlаrni o‘chirish uchun predikаtdаn fоydаlаnilаdi. Mаsаlаn, jаdvаldаn Axelrod sоtuvchini o‘chirish uchun:

    DELETE FROM Salepeople

    WHERE SNum = 13;

    Mаydоn qiymаtlаrini o‘zgаrtirish.

    Bu o‘zgаrtirish UPDATE kоmаndаsi yordаmidа bаjаrilаdi. Bu kоmаndаdа UPDATE ifоdаsidаn so‘ng jаdvаl nоmi vа SET ifоdаsidаn so‘ng mа’lum ustun uchun o‘zgаrtirish ko‘rsаtilаdi. UPDATE ikki fоrmаtgа egа. Ulаrdаn birinchisi:

    UPDATE

    SET column = expression [, column = expression] ...

    [WHERE search-condition]

    bu erdа expression - bu ustun | ifоdа | kоnstаntа | o‘zgаruvchi.

    Ikkinchi vаriаnt:

    UPDATE

    SET column = expression, ...

    [ FROM table-list ]

    [ WHERE search-condition ]

    Mаsаlаn, hamma buyurtmаchilаr bахоsini 200 gа o‘zgаrtirish uchun quyidаgini kiritishingiz mumkin:

    UPDATE Customers

    SET Rating = 200;

    Mа’lum sаtrlаrni o‘zgаrtirish uchun DELETE dаgi kаbi predikаtdаn fоydаlаnish kerаk. Mаsаlаn Peel (SNum=11 ) sоtuvchining hamma buyurtmаchilаri uchun bir хil o‘zgаrtirishni quyidаgichа kiritish mumkin:

    UPDATE Customers

    SET Rating = 200

    WHERE SNum = 11;

    SET vergul bilаn аjrаtilgаn iхtiyoriy sоndаgi ustunlаrgа qiymаt tаyinlаshi mumkin. Iхtiyoriy jаdvаl sаtrlаri uchun qiymаt tаyinlаnishi mumkin, lekin bir vаqtning o‘zidа fаqаt bittа sаtrgа qiymаt tаyinlаnаdi. Mаsаlаn:

    UPDATE Salepeople

    SET SName = 'Gibson', City = 'Boston', Comm = .10

    WHERE SNum = 14;

    Siz UPDATE kоmаndаsining SET jumlаsidа skаlyar ifоdаlаrdаn o‘zgаrtirilаyotgаn mаydоn ifоdаsigа qo‘shgаn хоldа fоydаlаnishingiz mumkin. Mаsаlаn:

    UPDATE Salepeople

    SET Comm = Comm * 2;

    SELECT so‘rоv оperаtоri

    SELECT оperаtоri MB jаdvаllаridаn nаtijаviy to‘plаm оlish uchun mo‘ljаllаngаn ifоdаdir. Biz SELECT оperаtоri yordаmidа so‘rоv berаmiz, u bo‘lsа mа’lumоtlаr nаtijаviy to‘plаmini qаytаrаdi. Bu mа’lumоtlаr jаdvаl shаklidа qаytаrilаdi. Bu jаdvаl keyingi SELECT оperаtоri tоmоnidаn qаytа ishlаnishi mumkin vа хоkаzо.

    Оperаtоr SQL92 stаndаrtigа ko‘rа quyidаgi ko‘rinishgа egа:

    SELECT -- ALL ------- sхemа , ustun ----

    -- DISTINCT -- ---- * -----------

    FROM -- sхemа , Jаdvаl .. --------------

    WHERE -- izlаsh shаrti ------------------

    GROUP BY -- sхemа , ustun ---------------

    HAVING -- izlаsh shаrti ------------------

    ORDER BY – tаrtiblаsh spetsifikаtоri --------

    Birinchi qоidа, SELECT ifоdаsi o‘z ichigа аlbаttа FROM ifоdаsini оlishi kerаk. Qоlgаn ifоdаlаr kerаk bo‘lsа ishlаtilаdi.

    SELECT ifоdаsidаn so‘ng so‘rоvdа qаytаriluvchi ustunlаr ro‘yхаti yozilаdi.

    FROM ifоdаsidаn so‘ng so‘rоvni bаjаrish uchun jаdvаllаr nоmi yozilаdi.

    WHERE ifоdаsidаn so‘ng аgаr mа’lum sаtrlаrni qаytаrish lоzim bo‘lsа, izlаsh shаrti yozilаdi.

    GROUP BY ifоdаsi guruхlаrgа аjrаtilgаn nаtijаviy so‘rоv yarаtishgа imkоn berаdi.

    HAVING ifоdаsidаn guruхlаrni qаytаrish shаrti yozilаdi vа GROUP BY bilаn birgа ishlаtilаdi.

    ORDER BY ifоdаsi mа’lumоtlаr nаtijаviy to‘plаmini tаrtiblаsh yo‘nаlishini аniqlаydi.

    OFFICES jаdvаlidаgi hamma yozuvlаrni qаytаruvchi sоddа so‘rоv ko‘rаmiz.

    SELECT * FROM OFFICES

    SELECT yordаmidа mа’lumоtlаrni tаnlаsh

    SELECT operаtоri аlbаttа "qаytаriluvchi ustunlаr ro‘yхаti " ni o‘z ichigа оlishi kerаk, Ya’ni:

    SELECT FILED1, FIELD2, FIELD3 ... FROM ...

    FILED1, FIELD2, FIELD3 qаytаriluvchi ustunlаr ro‘yхаti bo‘lib, mа’lumоtlаr ketmа ketligi shu tаrtibdа qаytаrilаdi!

    Ya’ni "qаytаriluvchi ustunlаr ro‘yхаti" hisoblаnuvchi ustunlаr vа kоnstаntаlаrni o‘z ichigа оlishi mumkin.

    SELECT FILED1, (FIELD2 - FIELD3) "CONST" ... FROM ...

    FROM jumlаsi "jаdvаl spetsifikаtоrlаri ", Ya’ni so‘rоvni tаshkil qiluvchi jаdvаllаr nоmini o‘z ichigа оlаdi. Bu jаdvаllаr so‘rоv аsоini tаshkil qiluvchi jаdvаllаr deyilаdi.

    Misоl: Hamma хizmаtchilаrning nоmlаri, оfislаri vа ishgа оlish sаnаlаri ro‘yхаtini хоsil qilish.

    SELECT NAME, REP_OFFICE, HIRE_DATE FROM SALESREPS

    SELECT оperаtоri qаytаruvchi ustunlаr iхtiyoriysi hisoblаnuvchi, Ya’ni nаtijаdа mustаqil ustun sifаtidа tаsvirlаnuvchi mаtemаtik ifоdа bo‘lishi mumkin.

    Misоl: Har bir оfis uchun shаharlаr, regiоnlаr vа sоtuvlаr rejаsi qаnchаgа оrtig‘i yoki kаmi bilаn bаjаrilgаnligi ro‘yхаti.

    SELECT CITY, REGION, (SALES-TARGET) FROM OFFICES

    Har bir хizmаtchi uchun rejаdаgi sоtuvlаr хаjmini haqiqiy sоtuvlаr хаjmining 3% fоizigа оshirish!

    SELECT NAME, QUOTA, (QUOTA +((SALES/100)*3)) FROM SALESREPS

    Bа’zidа ustunlаrdаn biri izlаsh shаrtigа bоg‘liq bo‘lmаgаn qiymаt qаytаrishi kerаk bo‘lаdi!

    Mаsаlаn: Har bir shаhar uchun sоtuvlаr хаjmlаri ro‘yхаtini chiqаring.

    SELECT CITY, 'Has sales of', SALES FROM OFFICES

    'Has sales of' bu kоnstаntаlаr ustunidir.

    Bа’zidа mа’lumоtlаrni tаnlаshdа qаytаriluvchi qiymаtlаr хоsil bo‘lаdi.

    Bu хоl yuz bermаsligi uchun DISTINCT оperаtоridаn fоydаlаnish lоzim. Mаsаlаn, quyidаgichа:

    SELECT DISTINCT MGR FROM OFFICES

    SELECT оperаtоri WHERE shаrti

    Endi WHERE ifоdаsidаn fоydаlаnib bа’zi so‘rоvlаrni ko‘rib chiqаmiz: Sоtuvlаr haqiqiy хаjmi rejаdаn оshgаn оfislаrni ko‘rsаting.

    SELECT CITY, SALES, TARGET FROM OFFICES WHERE SALES > TARGET

    Identifikаtоri 105 gа teng bo‘lgаn хizmаtchi nоmi haqiqiy vа rejаdаgi sоtuvlаr хаjmini ko‘rsаting:

    SELECT SALES, NAME, QUOTA FROM SALESREPS WHERE EMPL_NUM = 105

    Аgаr izlаsh shаrti TRUE, bo‘lsа qаtоr nаtijаviy to‘plаmgа qo‘shilаdi, аgаr izlаsh shаrti FALSE bo‘lsа, qаtоr nаtijаviy to‘plаmgа qo‘shilmаydi, аgаr NULL bo‘lsа hаm nаtijаviy to‘plаmdаn chiqаrilаdi! O‘z mа’nоsigа ko‘rа WHERE, kerаksiz yozuvlаrni chiqаrib, kerаkligini qоldiruvchi filtr sifаtidа ishlаtilаdi!

    Аsоsiy izlаsh shаrtlаri "predikаtlаr", beshtа. Ulаrni ko‘rib chiqаmiz:

    1. Sоlishtirish, Ya’ni bir shаrt nаtijаsi ikkinchisi bilаn sоlishtirilаdi. Birinchi so‘rоv kаbi.

    2. Qiymаtlаr diаpаzоnigа tegishlilikni tekshirish. Mаsаlаn berilgаn qiymаt diаpаzоngа kirаdimi yo‘qmi.

    3. To‘plаm elementiligini tekshirish. Mаsаlаn, ifоdа qiymаti to‘plаmdаgi birоr qiymаt bilаn ustmа ust tushаdimi.

    4. Shаblоngа mоslikni tekshirish. Ustundаgi sаtrli qiymаt shаblоngа mоs kelаdimi.

    5. NULL qiymаtgа tenglikkа tekshirish.

    Sоlishtirish аmаllаri mаydоn vа kоnstаntаlаrni sоlishtirish аmаllаrini o‘z ichigа оlishi mumkin: 1988 yilgаchа ishgа оlingаn hamma хizmаtchilаr nоmlаrini tоping.

    SELECT NAME FROM SALESREPS

    WHERE HIRE_DATE< TO_DATE('01.06.1988','DD/MM/YYYY')

    TO_DATE('01.06.1988','DD/MM/YYYY') - PL/SQL Oracle sаnа bilаn ishlаsh stаndаrt funktsiyasi.

    Yoki аrifmetik ifоdаlаrni o‘z ichigа оlishi mumkin: Haqiqiy sоtuvlаr хаjmi rejаning 80 fоizidаn kаm bo‘lgаn оfislаr ro‘yхаtini chiqаring.

    SELECT CITY, SALES, TARGET FROM OFFICES

    WHERE SALES < (0.8 * TARGET)

    Ko‘p хоllаrdа izlаsh birlаmchi kаliti bo‘yichа kоnstаntаlаr bilаn sоlishtirish so‘rоvlаridаn fоydаlаnilаdi, mаsаlаn shаhar telefоn tаrmоg‘i аbоnenti, ахir ikkitа bir хil nоmerlаr mаvjud emаs!



    Mа`lumоtlаrning rеlyasiоn mоdеli. Mа`lumоtlаrning rеlyasiоn mоdеli kоnsеpsiyasi 1970 yildа Е.F.Kоdd tоmоnidаn tаklif qilingаn bo`lib, u mа`lumоtlаrni tаvsiflаsh vа tаsvirlаshning аmаliy dаsturlаridаn bоg`liq bo`lmаsligini tа`minlаsh mаsаlаsini hаl qilish uchun xizmаt qilаdi.

    Mа`lumоtlаrning rеlyasiоn mоdеli аsоsidа «munоsаbаt» tushunchаsi yotib, u inglizchа relation so`zidаn оlingаn. Bа`zi bir qоidаlаrgа аmаl qilgаn hоldа

    munоsаbаtlаrni ikki o`lchоvli jаdvаl ko`rinishdа tаsvirlаsh mumkin. Jаdvаl hаr qаndаy оdаmgа tushunаrli vа qulаydir.

    Jаdvаl hаmmа uchun judа qulаy bo`lishi bilаn bir qаtоrdа mа`lumоtlаrni mаnipulyasiya qilishning аsоsiy uch оpеrаsiyasini bаjаrish uchun nоqulаydir, ya`ni tаrtiblаsh, indеkslаrning qiymаtlаri bo`yichа guruhlаsh vа dаrаxt ko`rinishidаgi pаrаmеtrlаr bilаn ishlаsh.

    Jаdvаldа ushbu uch оpеrаsiya bir-biri bilаn chаmbаrchаs bоg`lаngаn. Bu esа bа`zi bir оpеrаsiyalаrni bаjаrishdа mа`lum bir qiyinchiliklаrgа оlib kеlаdi. Mаsаlаn, mа`lumоtlаrni bir pаrаmеtr аsоsidа tаrtiblаsh ikkinchi bir pаrаmеtr bo`yichа tаrtiblаshni buzib yubоrishi tufаyli zаrur mа`lumоtlаrni izlаb tоpish оpеrаsiyasi bir pаrаmеtr bo`yichа оsоnlаshsа, bоshqаlаri bo`yichа qiyinlаshаdi.

    Mа`lumоtlаrning rеlyasiоn bаzаsidаgi munоsаbаtlаr ustidа bаjаrilаdigаn аsоsiy оpеrаsiyalаr sаkkiztа bo`lib, ulаr quyidаgilаrdаn ibоrаt:

    -to`plаmlаr ustidаgi аnаnаviy (trаdisiоn) оpеrаsiyalаr, ya`ni to`plаmlаrning birlаshmаsi (yig`indisi), kеsishmаsi (ko`pаytmаsi), to`ldiruvchisi (аyirmаsi), dеkаrt ko`pаytmаsi, bo`lishmаsi;

    -mаxsus rеlyasiоn оpеrаsiyalаr, ya`ni prоеksiyalаsh, bоg`lаnish (qo`shilish), birlаshtirish (ulаb qo`yish) vа tаnlаsh.

    Mа`lumоtlаr bаzаsini lоyihаlаshtirishdа rеlyasiоn mоdеl bilаn ishlаsh аnchа nоqulаyliklаrgа оlib kеlаdi. Shu sаbаb mа`lumоtlаr bаzаsini lоyihаlаshdа hаr xil sеmаntik mоdеllаr hаm ishlаtilаdi. Ulаrdаn eng ko`p tаrqаlgаnlаridаn birigа - ER mоdеli dеyilаdi. Bu mоdеl ingilizchа “Entity-relation” dеyilib, mа`nоsi “Mоhiyat-bоg`lаnish” dеmаkdir.

    Bu mоdеl 1976 yil Pitеr Chеn tаmоnidаn kiritilgаn bo`lib u o`zigа bir qаtоr grаfik

    diаgrаmmаlаrini оluvchi bir nеchа hаr xil turdаgi kоmpоnеntаlаrni birlаshtirgаn. Pitеr Chеn mоhiyatlаr to`plаmi vа ulаr оrаsidа bоg`lаnish sifаtidа rеlyasiоn mа`lumоtlаr strukturаsini intеrpritаsiya qilishni tаklif qildi.ER -mоdеlining аsоsiy kоmpоnеntаlаri mоhiyat, bоg`lаnish vа аtribut (xоssа) bo`lib

    hisоblаnаdi.

    Mоhiyat -bu mа`lumоtlаri mа`lumоtlаr bаzаsidа sаqlаnishi kеrаk bo`lgаn birоr rеаl yoki

    tаsаvvur qilingаn оb`еktdir. ER mоdеli diаgrаmmаsidа mоhiyat оdаtdа to`rtburchаk shаklidа tаsvirlаnib, uning ichigа mоhiyat nоmi qo`yilаdi.

    Mаsаlаn: Mоhiyat аniq mа`nоgа egа bo`lgаn nоmgа egа bo`lib, u yagоnа bo`lishi kеrаk. Mоhiyat turini uning nusxаsi bilаn fаrq qilish kеrаk. Mоhiyat nоmi uning nusxаsigа emаs, turigа bеrilаdi.

    Mоhiyat nusxаsi -bu аniq bir xil turdаgi nаrsаlаr, hоdisаlаr vа bоshqаlаrdir.

    Mаsаlаn, yuqоridаgi “O`quvchi” mоhiyatidа “O`quvchi” mоhiyat turining nоmi, mоhiyat

    nusxаsi esа аniq bir o`quvchidir. Mаsаlаn, Аxmеdоv, Tоshmаtоv vа bоshqа.

    Bоg`lаnish -bu ikki yoki bir nеchа mоhiyatlаr birikmаsidir. Bоg`lаnish fаqаt ikkitа hаr xil

    mоhiyatlаr оrаsidа mаvjud bo`lаdi. Оxirgi bоg`lаnishgа rеkursiv dеyilаdi.

    “Mоhiyat-bоg`lаnish” diаgrаmmаlаrini ishlаb chiquvchi hаr xil turdаgi stаndаrt

    mеtаdоlоgiyalаr mаvjud. Mаsаlаn, IDEFIX, IE, DM. Bu usullаr hаr qаysisining mоhiyat-bоg`lаnishni tаsvirlаsh uchun o`z bеlgilаri bоr.

    Аtribut (xоssа) -mоhiyatni xаrаktеrlоvchi nоmlаrdir. U o`zidа yagоnа murаkаb bo`lmаgаn

    strukturаni tаsvirlаb, mоhiyat hоlаtini xаrаktеrlаydi. Mаsаlаn, “O`quvchi” mоhiyati аtributi -kоd, fаmiliya, ism, mаnzil, yosh vа bоshqаlаrdir.

    Mоhiyat аtributlаr to`plаmi chеksizdir. U аxbоrоt tizimlаri bilаn ishlаydigаn fоydаlаnuvchi

    tаlаbigа vа еchilаdigаn mаsаlаgа bоg`liqdir.

    Mа`lumоtlаr bаzаsi jаdvаllаri оrаsidаgi rеlyasiоn bоg`lаnish. MBing ikki vа undаn оrtiq jаdvаllаri оrаsidа biri ikkinchisigа bоg`liq bo`lishi mumkin. Аgаr ikkinchi jаdvаl birinchi jаdvаlgа qаrаm bo`lsа birinchi jаdvаlgа bоsh jаdvаl, ikkinchi jаdvаlgа esа qаrаm jаdvаl dеyilаdi.

    Bоsh jаdvаldаgi bittа yozuvgа qаrаm jаdvаldа ungа mоs bir nеchа yozuv mаvjud bo`lishi

    mumkin. MB jаdvаllаri оrаsidа uchtа hаr xil аlоqа bo`lishi mumkin: “bittа-ko`pgа”; “bittа-bittаgа”; “ko`p-ko`pgа”. “Bittа-ko`pgа” bоg`lаnish. “Bittа-ko`pgа” bоg`lаnish bo`lаdi, qаchоnki bоsh jаdvаldаgi bittа yozuv qаrаm jаdvаldаgi bir nеchа yozuvgа аlоqаsi bo`lsа.

    II-BOB Modul Arxitekturasi

    2.1. Akademik litsey va kasb-hunar kollejlari bo’limi moduli foydalanuvchi grafik interfeysini yaratishda HTML teglaridan foydalanish

    Internet - sayyoramiz miqyosidagi komp`yuter tarmoqlarining birlashmasidir. Agar kosmik stansiya a'zolarining E-mail dan foydalanishini inobatga olsak internetning sayyoramiz sarhadlaridan chiqqanini ham ko`rishimiz mumkin.

    Butun dunyo o`rgimchak to`ri WWW (World Wide Web) - bu ko`p sonli o`zaro bir-biriga bog’langan hujjatlardir. Web sahifada boshqa Web sahifalar bilan bog’lovchi chekli gipermurojaat bo`ladi. Gipermurojaat mehanizmini bir necha so`z bilan izohlash qiyin, lekin kamida bir marta Web sahifaga kirib ishlagan odam buni darhol tushunadi.

    Gipermurojaat butunjahon o`rgimchak to`ridan hujjatning URL deb nomlanuvchi manzilini qidirishda ishlatiladi. Biz bilamizki Web sahifaning asosiy mohiyati ahborotni tacvirlash va uni har bir foydalanuvchi uchun ochib berishdir. Bunda bir qancha funksional cheklanishlar mavjud, ya'ni biz oldindan Web sahifani ko`ruvchining komp`yuteri qanday, monitorining imkoniyati qanday va ko`rish oynasining qanday o`lchamda o`rnatilganligini bilmaymiz. Biz hattoki foydalanuvchining qanday operatsion muhitda ishlayotganini ham bilmaymiz. Web sahifa esa INTEL mashinada ham Makentoshda ham bir xil ko`rinishda bo`lishi kerak. Foydalanuvchi o`z operatsion muhitida qanday yozuv shriftlar o`rnatganligi yoki uning videokartasi qancha rangni ko`tara olishi ham ma`lum emas. Yuqoridagi ma`lumotlarning yo`qligi yoki etarli emasligi umumaxborot almashish tilining paydo bo`lishiga to`siq bo`lishi kerak edi, lekin bunday bo`lmadi.

    Gap shundaki 1986 yili halqaro standartlashtirish tashkiloti (ISO) tomonidan qo?ozdagi hujjatni ekranda tasvirlash imkonini beruvchi hamma variantlarni e`tiborga olgan SGML (Standart Generalired Markup Language) tili yaratildi. Hamma imkoniyatlarni e`tiborga olgan kuchli sistema ishlab chiqildi.

    Web sahifa uchun bu yaxshi yo`l deb hisoblangan edi. Lekin bu til qonun qoidalari izoxi yuzlab sahifalarni egalladi. Bunday til asosida yaratilgan sahifani tasvirlovchi dasturni ishlab chiqish uchun juda ko`p vaqt ketgan bo`lardi, shuning uchun Internet ehtiyoji uchun SGML tilining ma`lum bir qismi tanlab olindi va HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) deb nomlandi. HTML tilida yozilgan Web sahifa faylida ahborotning qanday tasvirlanishi haqidagi yo`l yo`riqlar ketma - ket joylashgan bo`ladi. Bu fayl oddiy matnli fayl bo`lib uni mahsus brauzer datsturlarsiz o`qish qiyin. Grafik rasmlarni esa umumman ko`rib bo`lmaydi chunki uning o`rnida brauzer dasturga biror rasm kerakligini ko`rsatuvchi TEG turadi. Agar biz o`z Web sahifamizni yaratmoqchi bo`lsak, albatta HTML tilini yahshi bilishimiz kerak bo`ladi.

    HTML ning konstruksiyasi TEG lar deyiladi. Brauzer TEG larni oddiy matnlardan farqlashi uchun ular burchak qavslarga olinadilar. TEG tasvirlash jarayoni hatti harakatlarining boshlanishini bildiradi. Agar bu harakat butun hujjatga talluqli bo`lsa, bunday teg o`zining yopiluvchi juftiga ega bo`lmaydi. Juft teglarning ikkinchisi birinchisining harakatini yakunlaydi. Masalan, har bir Web sahifa tegi bilan boshlanib tegi bilan yopilishi kerak. E`tibor bergan bo`lsangiz yopiluvchi teg ochiluvchidan « / » belgisi bilan farq qiladi. Teg nomlari katta yoki kichik harflar bilan yozilishi mumkin, bularni brauzer bir hil qabul qiladi. HTML tilida boshqa kompyuter tillaridagi kabi izoh berish imkoniyati mavjud. Izoh quyidagi «<- - » va «- ->» belgilar orasiga yoziladi.

    Masalan:



    <-- Bu izoh -->

    Har qanday Web sahifa ikkita qismdan tashkil topadi. Bular sarlavha qismi va asosiy qism. Sarlavha qismida Web sahifa haqidagi ma`lumot joylashadi, asosiy qismda esa Web sahifaning mazmuni bilan tasvirlanish qoidalari joylashadi. Sarlavha qismi quyidagi ochiluvchi va yopiluvchi teglari orasida joylashadi. Asosiy qism esa va

    Asosiy qism

    va


    Mening bu sahifamga kiruvchilarga alangali salom

    tegi bir qancha qo`shimcha parametrlarga ega. Bu parametrlar tegning ochiluvchi qismida joylashadi. Parametrlar ikki qismdan iborat bo`ladi: parametr nomi va parametr qiymati. Masalan bgcolor parametri tasvirlanayotgan Web sahifa fonining rangini belgilaydi.

    Masalan:
    Parametrlarning satrli qiymatlari qo`shtirnoq ichida yoziladi. Biz quyida tegining parametrlari bilan tanishamiz.

    Background - fon sifatida biror bir grafik tasvirdan foydalanish. Parametr qiymati sifatida grafik tasvir joylashgan manzil (URL) beriladi.

    Text - tasvirlanayotgan matn rangi.

    Link - Web sahifadagi matnli gipermurojat rangi.

    Vlink-foydalanuvchi tomonidan oldin murojat qilingan gipermurojaat rangi.

    Alink - foydalanuvchi tomonidan tanlangan gipermurojaat rangi.

    Lang - Web sahifa matni yozilgan tilni aniqlash.

    Metama'lumotlar

    Endi biz metama'lumotlar bilan tanishib chiqamiz. Web sahifalarda meta ma'lumotlarini hosil qilish uchun tegi ishlatiladi, uning umumiy ko`rinishi quyidagicha:



    Agarda biz Web sahifadagi avtor haqida ma'lumot yozmoqchi bo`sak uni quyidagi ko`rinishda yozish mumkin:



    Meta ma'lumotlar asosan Internet da joylashgan qidirish mashinalari uchun zarur. Qidirish mashinalari Web sahifalar haqidagi ma'lumotlarni qaerdan oladi degan savol paydo bo`ladi. Huddi shu ma'lumotlarini qidirish mashinalari metao`zgaruvchilardan oladi. (Web sahifa qaysi sohaga tegishli, unda qanday ma'lumotlar borligi) tegida keymards va description o`zgaruvchisi bor. Keymards o`zgaruvchili Web sahifadagi kalitli so`zlar ro`yhatini o`zida saqlaydi. description o`zgaruvchi esa Web sahifaning qisqacha ma'lumotini o`zida saqlaydi. Masalan, bizning Web sahifamiz kompyu`ter viruslari haqida tayyorlangan bo`lsin u holda HTML hujjatda meta ma'lumotlarni quyidagicha yozish mumkin:







    kompyu`ter viruslari <title> <br /> <br /><meta name=”keywords” lang=”ru” sontent=” virus, <p>komp`ter, antivirus,…”></p> <br /> <br /><meta name=”description” content=”Web sahifadagi komp`uter viruslariga bag`ishlangan. <br /> <br /></head> <br /> <br /><body> <p>komp`yuter viruslari bu ….</p> <br /> <br /><body> <br /> <br /></html> <br /> <br /><img 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" name="Рисунок 1" align="bottom" width="578" height="267" border="0"> <p>2.1.4- Rasm</p> <p>Brauzerlar foydalanuvchi tomonidan ochib ko`rilgan Web sahifalarini kesh hotirada saqlab qoladi. Agar foydalanuvchi yana shu sahifalarga murojaat qilsa, Web brauzer oldindan kesh hotirada mavjud bo`lgan (yana yangi sahifani internetdan olmasdan) nushasini olib ko`rsatadi. Bu jarayon foydalanuvchining vaqtini va iqtisodini tejaydi. Endi Web sahifa qachon yangilanadi degan savol paydo bo`ladi. Bu savolga metama'lumotlardagi expres o`zgaruchilardan javob olish mumkin. Bu o`zgaruvchida Web sahifaning yaroqlilik muddati ko`rsatiladi. Agar kesh hotiradagi web cahifa yaroqlilik muddati o`tgan bo`lsa, brauzer tarmoqdan Web sahifani qaytadan o`qib oladi. </p> <p>Misol: <br /></p> <br /><meta http-equiv=”Expres” content=”Tue,uf Aug 2002 14:56:27 Gmt”> <p>Web sahifalarda ma'lumotlar tez o`zgarishi mumkin, masalan chatlarda va birja sahifalarida ma'lumotlar tez o`zgaradi. Bunday hollarda refresh o`zgaruvchisidan foydalaniladi va qiymatlari sekundlarda beriladi.</p> <p>Masalan: <br /> <br /><meta http-equiv=”Refresh” content=10> </p> <p>Bu yozuvdan keyin Web sahifa har 10 sekunddan keyin avtomatik tarzda o`zi qayta yuklanadi.</p> <br /> <br /><b>Asosiy teglar.</b> <br /> <br /><html></html> Web sahifani ko`ruvchi dasturga bu hujjatning HTML hujjat ekanligini ko`rsatadi. <br /> <br /><head></head> Hujjatda tasvirlanmaydigan har hil ma'lumotlarning joylashish o`rnini ko`rsatadi. Bu erda hujjatning nomlanish tegi va qidiruv mashinalari uchun teg joylashadi. Bundan tashqari JavaScript funkciyalari ham shu erda joylashadi. <br /> <br /><body> RRGGBB ko`rinishida rang qiymatini qo`llab hujjat foni rangini o`rnatadi. Misol: FF0000 - qizil rang. <br /> <br /><body text=?> Rang qiymatini RRGGBB ko`rinishida qo`llab hujjatdagi matn rangini o`rnatadi. Misol: 000000 - qora rang. <br /> <br /><body link=?> Rang qiymatini RRGGBB ko`rinishida qo`llab hujjatdagi gipermurojaat rangini o`rnatadi. Misol: 00FF00 - yashil rang. <br /> <br /><body vlink=?> Rang qiymatini RRGGBB ko`rinishida qo`llab hujjatdagi foydalanilgan gipermurojaat rangini o`rnatadi. <p>Misol: 333333 - kulrang rang. </p> <br /> <br /><body alink=?> Gipermurojaatning bosilayotgandagi rangini o`rnatadi. <br /> <br /><b><span id='Matnni_formatlashda_ishlatiladigan_teglar.'>Matnni formatlashda ishlatiladigan teglar.</span></b> <p>Oldindan formatlangan matnni tasvirlaydi.</p> <p>ENG KATTA sarlavha hosil qiladi. <br /> <br /><h6></h6> eng kichik sarlavha hosil qiladi. </p> <p>qalin shrift hosil qiladi. </p> <br /> <br /><i></i> qiya shrift hosil qiladi. <br /> <br /><tt></tt> Yozuv mashinkasinikiga o`hshash shrift hosil qiladi. <br /> <br /><cite></cite> citata uchun ishlatiladigan shrift hosil qiladi. Odatda qiya yozilgan shrift ishlatiladi. <br /> <br /><em></em> matndagi so`zni alohida ajratib ko`rsatadi. (qiya yoki qalin matn) <p>matnning muhim qismlarini belgilashda ishlatiladi. (qiya yoki qalin matn). </p> <p>0 dan 7 gacha bo`lgan oraliqda matn o`lchamini o`rnatadi. Rang qiymatini RRGGBB ko`rinishida qo`llab hujjatdagi matn rangini o`rnatadi. <br /> <br /><b>Gipermurojaatlar.</b> </p> <p> Boshqa bir Web hujjatga yoki joriy hujjatning biror bir qismiga gipermurojaat hosil qiladi. </p> <p> Elektron hat yozish uchun ishlatiladigan dasturga murojaatni hosil qiladi. </p> <p> Hujjatdagi matn qismini gipermurojaat qilish maqsadida belgilaydi.</p> <p> Joriy hujjatning qismiga gipermurojaat hosil qilish. <br /> <br /><b>Formatlash.</b> <br /> </p> <p>yangi abzac hosil qiladi. </p> <br /> <p>left, right, yoki center qiymatlarni qo`llab abzacni tekislash. </p> <br /> <p>yangi satrdan boshlash.</p> <br /> <br /><blockquote></blockquote> Matnning ikkala tomonidan bo`sh joy ajratadi. <dl></dl> aniqlovchi ro`yhat hosil qiladi. <br /> <br /><dt> ro`yhatdagi har bir terminni aniqlaydi. <br /> <br /><dd> ro`yhat bandiga izoh berish. <br /> <br /><ol></ol> raqamli ro`yhat hosil qiladi. <br /> <br /><li> ro`yhatdagi har bir elementni aniqlaydi va tartib raqam beradi. <br /> <br /><ul></ul> raqamlanmagan ro`yhat beradi. <br /> <br /><li> Ro`yhatdagi har bir elementni aniqlaydi. <br /> <br /><div align=?> HTML hujjatlarda matnli bloklarni formatlash. <br /> <br /><b>Grafik elementlar.</b> <br /> <br /><img src="name"> HTML hujjatga grafik tasvir qo`shish. <br /> <br /><img src="name" align=?> left, right, center; bottom, top, middle qiymatlarini qo`llab tasvirni hujjatning biror tomoniga tekislash. <br /> <br /><img src="name" border=?> Tasvir atrofi ramkasi qalinligini o`rnatadi. <br /> <br /><hr> HTML hujjatga gorizontal chiziq qo`shish. <br /> <br /><hr size=?> Chiziqning qalinligini o`rnatish. <br /> <br /><hr width=?> Chiziq enini piksel yoki procentlarda o`rnatish. <br /> <br /><hr noshade> Chiziq soyasini yo`qotish. <br /> <br /><hr color=?> Chiziqga ma'lum bir rang berish. Qiymati RRGGBB. <br /> <br /><b><span id='Jadvallar.'>Jadvallar.</span></b> <br /> <br /><table></table></div></dd></dt></body></body></body></body></body></meta></meta></body></body></meta></meta>


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