Chapter 8: Local Area Networks: Software and Support Systems true/false




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Chapter 8: Local Area Networks: Software and Support Systems
TRUE/FALSE
1. Network operating systems are essential if the network is going to allow multiple users to share resources.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 240


2. Users cannot interact directly with the operating system through a shell.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 241


3. In reality, a multitasking operating system runs only one program at a time.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 241


4. The resources that a network operating system must manage typically include one or more network servers.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 242


5. A network operating system does not perform network support functions.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 242


6. Microsoft Windows 7 is an example of a desktop operating system.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 242


7. NetWare 6 was the last version of Novell’s network operating system.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 243


8. A bindery contains the data that pertains only to the server it resides in.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 244


9. The design of a tree should ideally be similar to a pyramid.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 245


10. NetWare 5 dropped the NDS distributed database of network resources.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 246


11. Windows 2008 Server is a network operating system designed to run over a network of microcomputer workstations and provide file sharing and peripheral sharing.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 247


12. It is not possible to create a network with multiple domains.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 248


13. Unlike NetWare’s NDS, Active Directory creates a hierarchical structure of resources.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 249


14. Unix is most often found with a text-based interface, although graphical user interfaces are available.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 251


15. Shortly after its introduction, the Unix software was rewritten in the popular C++ programming language.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 251


16. Unix runs on the widest variety of hardware of any network operating system.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 251


17. Linux shares many of the same advantages and disadvantages of Unix.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 252


18. Linux software cannot support e-mail servers, Web servers, FTP servers, file/print servers, firewalls, proxy servers, and Domain Name System (DNS) servers.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 253


19. Mac OS X Server is based on the Unix concept.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 254


20. A network operating system needs a host machine from which to operate.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 256


21. Network servers only include mainframe computers.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 256


22. Many of the higher-power network servers support not one but multiple processors.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 257


23. A network server requires at least three connections to the network in the form of a network interface card.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 257


24. When peer-to-peer networks first appeared roughly 30 years ago, they were serverless networks.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 258


25. Recently, business and home computer users have been victims of another type of intrusion from unscrupulous outsiders—spyware.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 259


26. Wireless sniffers cannot detect how far wireless signals reach.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 260


27. Browsers allow users to download and view World Wide Web pages.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 261


28. When a software package is installed on a multiuser system, it is not possible for multiple users to execute multiple copies of the single program.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: 263


29. Every software company may create its own brand of user licenses and may name them something unique.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: 263



COMPLETION
1. A(n) _________________________ is the program initially loaded into computer memory when the computer is turned on.

ANS:


operating system

operating system (OS)

OS

OS (operating system)



PTS: 1 REF: 241
2. Even after an application starts and is being executed, the application makes use of the operating system by making service requests through a defined ___________________________________.

ANS:


application program interface (API)

application program interface

API

API (application program interface)



PTS: 1 REF: 241
3. In a(n) ____________________ operating system, multiple programs can be running at the same time.

ANS: multitasking

PTS: 1 REF: 241
4. A(n) ______________________________ is a large, complex program that can manage the common resources on most local area networks.

ANS:


network operating system (NOS)

network operating system

NOS

NOS (network operating system)



PTS: 1 REF: 242
5. ____________________ allows all future print requests to be automatically forwarded to the network printer in an operation that is transparent to both you and the application.

ANS: Redirection

PTS: 1 REF: 243
6. The NetWare ____________________ in version 3 was a structure (similar to a database) that contains the usernames and passwords of network users and groups of users authorized to log in to that server.

ANS: bindery

PTS: 1 REF: 243
7. NetWare ____________________ (NDS) is a database that maintains information on and access to every resource on the network, including users, groups of users, printers, data sets, and servers.

ANS: Directory Services

PTS: 1 REF: 243
8. A(n) _________________________ is an object that is further composed of additional objects (examples of which include servers, printers, users, or groups of users).

ANS:


organizational unit (OU)

organizational unit

OU

OU (organizational unit)



PTS: 1 REF: 244
9. ____________________ objects are not composed of any objects and are usually entities such as the users, peripherals, servers, printers, queues, and other network resources.

ANS: Leaf

PTS: 1 REF: 245
10. The NT ____________________ was a container object that contained users, servers, printers, and other network resources.

ANS: domain

PTS: 1 REF: 248
11. Microsoft’s ____________________ stores information about all the objects and resources in a network and makes this information available to users, network administrators, and application programs.

ANS: Active Directory

PTS: 1 REF: 249
12. As in Windows NT, the main object in Windows Server 2000 is the ____________________.

ANS: domain

PTS: 1 REF: 250
13. A(n) ____________________ is the computer that stores software resources such as the network operating system, computer applications, programs, data sets, and databases, and either allows or denies workstations connected to the network access to these resources.

ANS: network server

PTS: 1 REF: 256
14. _____________________________________________ is a collection of techniques for interfacing multiple hard disk drives to a computer.

ANS:


Redundant array of independent disks (RAID)

Redundant array of independent disks

RAID

RAID (Redundant array of independent disks)



PTS: 1 REF: 256
15. A(n) ____________________ is a single unit or box that supports many networking functions.

ANS: server appliance

PTS: 1 REF: 257
16. A(n) ____________________ may not have any servers but allows communications between workstations, as if the workstations were all equals.

ANS: peer-to-peer network

PTS: 1 REF: 258
17. ____________________ are software programs that operate in the background and support one or more functions to keep the network running at optimal performance.

ANS: Utilities

PTS: 1 REF: 259
18. ____________________, or unsolicited commercial bulk e-mail, has become a major nuisance to corporate users as well as individuals.

ANS: Spam

PTS: 1 REF: 259
19. ____________________ is software that a user unknowingly downloads from the Internet; and when this software is executed on the user’s machine, it begins spying on the user.

ANS: Spyware

PTS: 1 REF: 259
20. ____________________ software allows network administrators to back up data files currently stored on the network server’s hard disk drive.

ANS: Backup

PTS: 1 REF: 260
21. ____________________ can “listen” to traffic on a network and determine if invalid messages are being transmitted, report network problems such as malfunctioning NICs, and detect traffic congestion problems.

ANS: Sniffers

PTS: 1 REF: 260
22. ____________________ software is designed to scan an IP address or range of IP addresses for any type of security weakness.

ANS: Security assessment

PTS: 1 REF: 261
23. One of the fastest growing segments of the software market is ____________________ software, the tool set to support Internet-related services.

ANS: Internet

PTS: 1 REF: 261
24. The ____________________ that accompanies a software product is a legal contract and describes a number of conditions that must be upheld for proper use of the software package.

ANS: licensing agreement

PTS: 1 REF: 262
25. A(n) ____________________ license, operating system user license, and controlled number of concurrent users license all refer to essentially the same situation.

ANS: interactive user

PTS: 1 REF: 263
ESSAY
1. What are the functions performed by a network operating system?

ANS:


A network operating system functions can be summarized as follows:

* Manage one or more network servers

- Maintain a file system of data sets, applications, user profiles, network peripherals

- Coordinate all resources and services available

- Process requests from users

- Prompt users for network login, validate accounts, apply restrictions, perform accounting functions

* Manage one or more network printers

* Manage the interconnection between local area networks

* Manage locally connected users

* Manage remotely connected users

* Support system security

* Support client/server functions

* Support Web page development and Web server operations

PTS: 1 REF: 242


2. How does the NetWare Directory Services (NDS) work?

ANS:


In the NDS, all network resources are considered to be objects, regardless of their actual physical location. NDS is global to the network and is replicated on multiple servers to protect it from failure at a single point. Because NDS is global, users can log in from any location on the network and access any resources for which they have been granted permission. Every user who is allowed to log in to the network is entered into the NDS by the network administrator. Likewise, all network support devices such as printers are also entered into the NDS. For example, if user X wants to use printer Y, the network administrator has to assign the appropriate permissions to allow user X to access printer Y. These permissions are also entered into the NDS. Every time user X logs on and tries to send a print job to printer Y, the NDS is referenced for the necessary permissions.
The basic idea underlying NDS is that the network administrator must create a hierarchical tree that represents the layout of the organization. This hierarchical structure actually resembles an inverted tree, with the root at the top and the users and network resources—the leaves—at the bottom. This tree could correspond to the physical layout of the organization: for example, workstations 1 through 20 will be on the third floor of an office building, workstations 21 through 40 on the second floor, and workstations 41 through 60 on the first floor. A more powerful and flexible hierarchical tree can be created based on a logical layout. For example, a logical layout could describe the organization in terms of its departmental structure: the engineering department (which could be scattered over floors 1 through 3), the sales department (which could be situated on floors 2, 6, and 7), and marketing (which might be physically located in two different buildings).

PTS: 1 REF: 244


3. What are the four steps for creating a good and appropriate tree design?

ANS:


Creating a good and appropriate tree design is not a trivial task; however, the following four basic steps will give the network administrator a good start. First, gather the appropriate corporate documents so that you know about the available hardware and software and the employee departments and divisions. As part of this first step, you should obtain an organizational chart.
Second, design the top section of the tree before you design any lower sections. To design the top section of the tree, you give the top level of the tree the name of the organization object (in most cases, the name of the company) and then create the first layer of organizational units, or container objects. For example, a division in a company that is composed of multiple departments would be considered an organizational unit. A department is also an organizational unit because it too is further composed of objects, such as employees. If your network is very small, there may not be a need for any organizational units.
Third, you design the bottom section of the tree, which includes the remaining hierarchy of organizational units and leaf objects. Leaf objects are not composed of any objects and are usually entities such as the users, peripherals, servers, printers, queues, and other network resources.
The fourth and final step in creating a tree is to design the security access rights—determine who has rights to the appropriate objects. For example, if you create a new user and place that user in a particular location on the tree, what rights will that user have? What printers and directories will that user be able to access?

PTS: 1 REF: 244-245


4. What are some of the features offered by Windows 2003/2008?

ANS:


Although it does not appear to be a major reorganization of the operating system—as Windows 2000 was, when compared to Windows NT—Windows 2003 does offer many new features that network administrators may find useful. Some of these features are:

* Updates to the Active Directory, including a new management tool that unifies all the tasks related to group policy

* Capability to interconnect (cluster) up to eight Windows 2003 servers for better user and application support

* New and improved file and print support services, including increased reliability, wider range of supported printers, and remote document sharing

* Support for Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)

* Better security features for files, networks, servers, the operating system, and Web-based transactions

PTS: 1 REF: 251
5. What are some of the more common RAID techniques?

ANS:


Some of the more common RAID techniques include:

* RAID-0, in which the data is broken into pieces, and each piece is stored on different disk drives. This technique is known as striping. There is no redundancy of data in this technique, so if one disk drive fails, some of the data is lost. The advantage of this technique, however, is the speed at which data can be read or written across multiple disks at the same time.

* RAID-1, in which the data is stored on at least two disk drives, in duplicate, to provide a level of redundancy (or fault tolerance), should one disk become corrupted. This technique is also known as disk mirroring.

* RAID-3, in which the data is redundantly stored across multiple disk drives (striping), and error-checking information concerning the stored data is kept on a separate disk. This error-checking information can be used to detect errors and possibly reconstruct the data should some of it become corrupted.



* RAID-5, in which data is broken into pieces (stripes) and stored across three or more disks. Parity information (error-checking code) is stored along with the striped data, not on a separate disk. RAID-5 is the most popular of the RAID techniques.

PTS: 1 REF: 256
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Chapter 8: Local Area Networks: Software and Support Systems true/false

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