Investigating Internet Marketing Strategies among Hotels in Ghana




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4.4 Research Approach

Research may be approached qualitatively or quantitatively. The choice of research approach largely depends on the defined research problems and the kind of data required in solving these problems (Guba & Lincoln, 1994).


According to Yin (2003) when the purpose of the study is to test hypothesis and generalise results; then quantitative method is used. In quantitative research, the researcher employs cause and effect thinking, reduction to specific variables and hypothesis and questions, use of instruments and observations and test of theories. According to Nueman, (2003) and Cooper, (2006) quantitative approach is generally characterized with quantifiable and numeric data usually expressed in numbers and statistics. It is also associated with large amount of samples, high concern for representation as well as a highly structured data collection method. Thus in quantitative research, the focal point is variables and relationships not processes. Quantitative research borders on measurement and analysis of causal relationships between variables. (Neuman, 2003; Zikmund, 2000)

Qualitative study is basically a study conducted to understand a social or human problem, based on primarily building on a complex holistic picture, formed with words, reporting detailed views of informants and conducted in a natural setting (Creswel, 2003). Crewel (2003) did mention that, whiles researchers make use of post positivist claim for developing knowledge in quantitative study, investigators primarily make knowledge claims based on constructivist perspective in qualitative study (i.e., the multiple meaning of individual experiences, meaning socially and historically constructed, with an intent of developing a theory or pattern.

In contrast to quantitative research where data is expressed in numbers and statistics, qualitative approach involves data in the form written or spoken words, actions, sounds, symbols, physical objects, or visual images and its primarily involves small sample, unstructured methods for data gathering as well as little attention on representative. (Yin, 2003; Neuman, 2003)

Choosing a research approach largely depends on the definition of the research problems, research questions, objectives and the data needed to solve the problems or to achieve the stated objective. In this study the objective is to investigate the internet marketing strategies that are being pursued by hotels in Ghana. To carry out this study a model developed from literature review was used and a questionnaire was designed and used to survey the Ghanaian hotel industry. Considering the above issues and reviewing literature the study will be quantitative.

Research may be approached from deductive or inductive perspectives. It is deductive when it begins with the development of a theory or hypothesis and proposition and a strategy is designed to test it in a context to verify or reject its self generated hypothesis or proposition. So it is thinking from general to specific (ie., from rule to case to result).

According to Saunders, et al., (2000) the following characteristics are associated with deductive approach;



  • There is a search to explain casual relationship between variables.

  • Data collection method is usually quantitative. (,..This is not to say that deductive method may not use qualitative data)

  • Deductive approach controls to allow the testing of hypothesis

  • Concepts need to be operationalised in a way that allows facts to be measured quantitatively.

  • Deductive approach is about generalisation and in order to generalise about regularities in human social behaviour it is important to select sample of sufficient numerical size (ibid)

On the other hand, the approach is inductive where the research begins with an observation of a phenomenon in an environment, then data is collected upon which a theory is developed or generalization is made. Thus, thinking from specific to general. (Saunders, et al., 2000)

In this study, we have carefully selected an existing model from literature and tested them with an empirical data, thus the research approach is deductive.




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Investigating Internet Marketing Strategies among Hotels in Ghana

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