The reliability of the measurement instrument is concerned with the consistency of the responses to the questions (Mitchel, 1996). Reliability is the accuracy or precision of the measurement instruments such that it would be able to yield similar outcome or results for similar inputs. Statistically, reliability is defined as the percentage of the inconsistency in the responses to the survey that is the result of differences in the respondents. This implies that responses to a reliable survey will vary because respondents have different opinions, not because the questionnaire items are confusing or ambiguous.
It could be estimated using stability or equivalence approaches. In this study we pre-tested the questionnaire to strengthen its reliability. Although our data measuring instruments are in the form of dichotomous choices (Yes/No) the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used because it will produce the same results as the Kuder-Richardson Formula (KR-20) with dichotomous data (Cortina, 1993; Yaffee, 1999). Cronbach's alpha, developed in 1951 (Cronbach 1951) is a model of internal consistency based on the average inter-item correlation. The Cronbach's alpha is calculated based on the number of items on the survey (k) and the ratio of the average inter-item covariance to the average item variance.
This ratio assumes that the item variances are all equal; it specifies to the average inter-item correlation, and the result is known as the Standardized item alpha (or Spearman-Brown stepped-up reliability coefficient):
A summary of the results of the Cronbach’s alpha retrieved from the SPSS output for all the five marketing dimensions is shown in table 4.6 below:
Table 4.6 Reliability statistic for marketing mix dimensions
From the table 4.6, four out of the five dimensions have Alpha Cronbach’s values above 0.6, the accepted limit for reliability test. The values indicate that there is good internal consistency among the scales. However the test involving all the 25 items shows an overall Alpha Conbach’s of 0.91. Considering that the overall reliability of the questionnaire is above 0.6, it can be concluded that the questionnaire is reliable.
In addition to the above the following procedures were taken to ensure valid and reliable data collection process:
The right target population was identified.
The representativeness of the sample was ensured since the sample was made up of adequate representation of hotels based on their star category distribution
The sampling method was appropriate since hotels were selected through probability sampling method to remove biases.
The data sources were all reliable since we used published academic and professional journal articles.
In administering the instruments, the respondents were assured of anonymity and confidentiality so they could provide us with accurate/real answers to remove subject/participant biases.
Data was entered using SPSS with much care.
5.0 Data Presentation and Analysis
This chapter presents the data that have been gathered through the questionnaire survey and convert it into information after analysis. Descriptive statistics about respondents profile and the structure of the internet marketing mix are presented. The statistical analysis has been done by SPSS. Also in this section the transformation degree of each dimension is computed and presented.
5.1 General Information
The first part of the questionnaire asked for some general information about the hotel. It includes the hotel category, hotel size and type of hotel, educational level of hotel manager and location of hotel. In order to provide a better understanding and an overview of the hotels that were sampled, descriptive statistics about the demographic information is presented.
5.1.1 Level of Education
Respondents were asked about the educational level of the hotel manager. The level of education was categories as Diploma, HND, Bachelors, Masters and PHD. The levels of education provided in this study are in accordance to Tertiary education provisions in Ghana.
The respondents educational level as displayed in table 5.1 and figure 5.1 indicates that most of the hotel managers had bachelors degree representing 39.1%, 28.7% had higher diploma while 18.4% had diploma and few of the hotel managers had masters representing 13.8%.
5.1.2 Hotel Type
Respondents were asked about the kind management arrangement of their hotel were operating under. As indicated in chapter four, depending on management arrangement hotels can be classified as Independent, Chain and Franchise. Table 5.2 below shows the distributions of the surveyed hotels along this classification.
Table 5.2 Hotel Type
Source: field data 2011
Table 5.2 depicts the type of hotel. It is obvious that most of the respondents were from independently owned hotels constituting 78.2%. 20.7% of the respondents represented chain hotels and 1.1% were from franchise hotels
Respondents were asked about their hotel category. Generally hotels can be categories base on their star ratings. Depending on the guidelines provided by Automobile Association (AA) and Royal Automobile Club (RAC) as indicated in chapter four, the surveyed hotels were categories as shown in table 5.3
Table 5.3 Hotel Category
Source: field data 2011
Table 5.3 shows respondents hotel category. Most of the respondents (34.5% and 32.2%) were from 2 star and 3 star hotels respectively. 20.7% of the respondents were from 1star hotels. 9.2% of the respondents were from 4 star hotels whiles a minority of 3.5% were from 5 stars hotels.
5.1.4 Hotel Size
Respondents were asked about the size of their Hotel in terms of the number of rooms. Hotels size were classified as; Small hotel- a hotel with 25 rooms or less, Average hotel- a hotel with 26 to 50 rooms and Large hotels- a hotel with above 50 rooms. The distributions of the surveyed hotels along the hotel size is shown in table 5.4 and figure 5.4 below
Table 5.4 Hotel Size
Number of Rooms
Above 50 rooms
Source: field data 2011
Source: field data 2011
Table 5.4 and figure 5.4 shows hotel categorized by number of rooms. Of the three broad categories described within the research there seems to be an equal representation. 35.63% of the respondents were from hotels with rooms from 26 to 50, hotel rooms from 1 to 25 and above 50 were both 32.18%.
Respondents were asked about the location of their hotel according to the ten regions in Ghana. Ghana can be divided into three zones; the southern zone which comprise of Greater Accra, Volta, Central and Western: the middle zone comprises of Ashanti, Eastern and Brong Ahafo: the northern zone which comprises of Northern, Upper East and Upper West. Table 5.5 shows the distribution of the surveyed hotels according to the ten regions
Table 5.5 Location of Hotel
Location of Hotel/Region
Source: field data 2011
Source; field data 2011
Table 5.5 and figure 5.5 depicts location of hotels within the ten regions of Ghana. It indicates that a relatively larger number of the hotels 36.8% are located in Greater Accra followed by Ashanti Region representing 16.1%. 12.6% of the hotels are in the Western Region while Central and Brong Ahafo regions are each represented by 6.1%. 5.7% are located in the Eastern region while both Volta and Northern are each represented by 4.6%. 3.4% of hotels are located in Upper West and Upper East has a hotel representation of 2.3%.
5.2 Composition/Structure of the Internet Marketing Mix
In this section, in order to answer the research questions of the study, the responses to the questions in each of the five internet marketing dimensions would be investigated.
As it has been discussed in Chapter Four, the suitable statistical method for identifying the composition/structure of hotels internet market mix and the degree of transformation is by analyzing the responses in frequencies and proportion (percentages) using the multiple response command were the counted value are hotels that have designed their web sites for activities in each of the five internet marketing dimensions. (i.e hotels that responded “yes” to items within each of the internet marketing mix dimensions). Analysis of the five dimensions is presented in tables (5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, and 5.10)
In all the cases we are going to describe the tables by these definitions; the tables are made up of four major columns – “Variable name” represents the construct for the measuring instrument within the internet marketing mix dimensions: The “Responses/Frequency” column shows how many of the hotels have designed their websites to make use of items within a dimension. Note that since each respondent in the survey can answer “Yes” to each and every item within the dimensions or to none at all, in most of the cases, the number of responses does not necessarily equal the sample size. It may be higher or it may be lower: The “Responses/Percent” column indicates what percentage of the total number of responses is represented by each of the items in a dimension. This column adds up to 100% as it is calculated on the total number of responses: “Percent of Cases” shows what percentage participating hotels in a dimension answered Yes to each item. However this column does not add up to 100% which is simply a reflection of the fact that, respondent’s hotel website could have more than one feature within a dimension: The last column “% of Respondent” shows what percentage of all the surveyed hotels answered yes to an item in a dimension.
5.2.1 Transformation of Product
Table 5.6 Frequency, percentage of product dimension
Percent of Cases
% of Respondent
A dichotomy group tabulated at value 1. Source: Field data 2011
From the data presented in the table 5.6 and figure 5.6 above, it is evident that all the respondents have transformed the Product Dimension with all the 87 (100%) of the surveyed hotels having written information about their facilities and services on their website (TProd1L) which forms 100% of all the cases. 86 (98.9%) of the hotels have pictures of their facilities on their web sites whiles 13 (14.9%) of the respondent have videos of product on their web site. Also only 7 (8%) of respondents have audio and offer opportunity for clients to participate in hotel room design online, while 17(19.5%) and 20 (23%) of respondents respectively have customization of product information online and opportunity to suggest services on offer via the hotel website.
On the level of sophistication at which the hotels are transforming the product dimension, All the hotels 87 (100%) of respondents are engaged in low sophistication by providing written information on their hotel website. 86 (98.9%) of the respondent have transformed one aspect of the product dimension (availability of pictures on hotel website) which relate to high sophistication. Less than 25% of respondents have designed their web sites to make use of other aspects of high sophistication.
5.2.2 Transformation of Price
Table 5.7 Frequency, percentage of price dimension
Percent of Cases
% of Respondents
A dichotomy group tabulated at value 1. Source: Field Data
Table 5.7 shows that Out of the total respondents, 56 (64.4%) have price information on their hotel website. It is also evident that, out of 87 surveyed hotels, it is only 56 have transformed aspects in the price dimension with all of them providing price information on their web sites which accounts for the 100% of cases for TPri1L. 10 (11.5%) of the respondents provide dynamic customization of price based on personal information (TPri2H) while 12 (13.8%) of the respondents have dynamic customization of prices based on demand patterns (TPri3H).
However only 3 (3.4%) and 7 (8.0%) the surveyed hotels provide price negotiation online (TPri4H) and allow partner websites to provide price negation on their behalf (TPri5H) respectively.
On the level of sophistication at which the hotels are transforming the price dimension it is clear that all the 56 hotels that have transformed the price dimensions have transformed at low sophistication while the other aspects classified as high sophistication records figures below 15% of all the hotels that have transformed the price dimension.