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    Performance Tuning Guidelines for Windows Server 2012

    April 12, 2013


    This guide describes important tuning parameters and settings that you can adjust to improve the performance and energy efficiency of the Windows Server 2012 operating system. It describes each setting and its potential effect to help you make an informed decision about its relevance to your system, workload, and performance goals.

    The guide is for information technology (IT) professionals and system administrators who need to tune the performance of a server that is running Windows Server 2012.

    For the most current version of this guide, see Performance Tuning Guidelines for Windows Server 2012.

    Disclaimer: This document is provided “as-is”. Information and views expressed in this document, including URL and other Internet website references, may change without notice. Some information relates to pre-released product which may be substantially modified before it’s commercially released. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, with respect to the information provided here. You bear the risk of using it.

    Some examples depicted herein are provided for illustration only and are fictitious. No real association or connection is intended or should be inferred.

    This document does not provide you with any legal rights to any intellectual property in any Microsoft product. You may copy and use this document for your internal, reference purposes.

    © 2013 Microsoft. All rights reserved.
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    Document History



    April 12, 2013

    Added note in the “Performance Tuning for TPC-E workload” section that the tunings are specifically for OLTP benchmarking and should not be perceived as general SQL tuning guidance.

    October 12, 2012

    Updated Server Core Installation Option, Correct Memory Sizing for Child Partitions, and Correct Memory Sizing for Root Partition


    Contents 2

    Introduction 3

    In This Guide 4

    Choosing and Tuning Server Hardware 5

    Choosing Server Hardware: Performance Considerations 5

    Choosing Server Hardware: Power Considerations 8

    Processor Terminology 10

    Power and Performance Tuning 10

    Calculating Server Energy Efficiency 10

    Measuring System Energy Consumption 11

    Diagnosing Energy Efficiency Issues 12

    Using Power Plans in Windows Server 12

    Tuning Processor Power Management Parameters 13

    Performance Tuning for the Networking Subsystem 17

    Choosing a Network Adapter 18

    Offload Capabilities 18

    Receive-Side Scaling (RSS) 18

    Receive-Segment Coalescing (RSC) 21

    Network Adapter Resources 22

    Message-Signaled Interrupts (MSI/MSI-X) 23

    Interrupt Moderation 23

    Tuning the Network Adapter 24

    Enabling Offload Features 24

    Increasing Network Adapter Resources 25

    Workload Specific Tuning 25

    System Management Interrupts 26

    Tuning TCP 26

    Network-Related Performance Counters 27

    Performance Tools for Network Workloads 29

    Tuning for NTttcp 29

    TCP/IP Window Size 30

    Server Performance Advisor 3.0 30

    Performance Tuning for the Storage Subsystem 32

    Choosing Storage 32

    Estimating the Amount of Data to Be Stored 33

    Choosing a Storage Solution 34

    Hardware Array Capabilities 36

    Choosing the Right Resiliency Scheme 42

    Selecting a Stripe Unit Size 48

    Determining the Volume Layout 48

    Choosing and Designing Storage Tiers 49

    Storage Spaces 49

    Storage Spaces Configuration Options 49

    Deployment Elements: A New Unit of Scale 50

    Storage-Related Parameters and Performance Counters 52

    I/O Priorities 52

    Logical Disks and Physical Disks 52

    Processor Information 55

    Power Protection and Advanced Performance Option 55

    Block Alignment (DISKPART) 56

    Solid-State Drives 57

    Trim and Unmap Capabilities 58

    Response Times 58

    Queue Lengths 60

    Performance Tuning for Web Servers 62

    Selecting the Proper Hardware for Performance 62

    Operating System Practices 62

    Tuning IIS 8.0 62

    Kernel-Mode Tunings 63

    Cache Management Settings 64

    Request and Connection Management Settings 65

    User-Mode Settings 65

    User-Mode Cache Behavior Settings 65

    Compression Behavior Settings 66

    Tuning the Default Document List 67

    Central Binary Logging 68

    Application and Site Tunings 68

    Managing IIS 8.0 Modules 69

    Classic ASP Settings 69

    ASP.NET Concurrency Setting 70

    Worker Process and Recycling Options 71

    Secure Sockets Layer Tuning Parameters 71

    ISAPI 72

    Managed Code Tuning Guidelines 72

    Other Issues that Affect IIS Performance 72

    NTFS File System Setting 73

    Networking Subsystem Performance Settings for IIS 73

    Performance Tuning for File Servers 74

    Selecting the Proper Hardware for Performance 74

    Server Message Block Model 74

    SMB Model Overview 74

    SMB Configuration Considerations 74

    Tuning Parameters for SMB File Servers 75

    SMB Server Tuning Example 78

    Services for NFS Model 78

    Services for NFS Model Overview 78

    Tuning Parameters for NFS File Servers 79

    General Tuning Parameters for Client Computers 81

    File Client Tuning Example 86

    Performance Tuning for a File Server Workload (FSCT) 88

    Registry Tuning Parameters for Servers 88

    Registry Tuning Parameters for Client Computers 89

    Performance Counters for SMB 3.0 90

    Performance Tuning for File Server Workload (SPECsfs2008) 91

    Registry-Tuning Parameters for NFS File Servers 91

    Performance Tuning for Active Directory Servers 92

    Considerations for Read-Heavy Scenarios 92

    Considerations for Write-Heavy Scenarios 93

    Using Indexing to Improve Query Performance 93

    Optimizing Trust Paths 93

    Active Directory Performance Counters 94

    Performance Tuning for Remote Desktop Session Host

    (Formerly Terminal Server) 95

    Selecting the Proper Hardware for Performance 95

    CPU Configuration 95

    Processor Architecture 95

    Memory Configuration 96

    Disk 96

    Network 97

    Tuning Applications for Remote Desktop Session Host 97

    Remote Desktop Session Host Tuning Parameters 98

    Page file 98

    Antivirus and Antispyware 98

    Task Scheduler 99

    Desktop Notification Icons 99

    RemoteFX data compression 99

    Device redirection 99

    Client Experience Settings 100

    Desktop Size 102

    Windows System Resource Manager 102

    Performance Tuning for Remote Desktop Virtualization Host 103

    General Considerations 103

    Storage 103

    Memory 103

    CPU 103

    Virtual GPU 104

    RemoteFX GPU Processing Power 105

    Performance Optimizations 108

    Dynamic Memory 108

    Tiered Storage 108

    CSV Cache 108

    Pooled Virtual Desktops 109

    Performance Tuning for Remote Desktop Gateway 111

    Monitoring and Data Collection 113

    Performance Tuning Remote Desktop Services Workload for Knowledge Workers 114

    Recommended Tunings on the Server 115

    Monitoring and Data Collection 117

    Performance Tuning for Virtualization Servers 119

    Terminology 119

    Hyper-V Architecture 120

    Server Configuration 121

    Hardware Selection 122

    Server Core Installation Option 123

    Dedicated Server Role 123

    Guest Operating Systems 123

    CPU Statistics 123

    Processor Performance 124

    Virtual Machine Integration Services 124

    Enlightened Guests 124

    Virtual Processors 125

    Background Activity 125

    Weights and Reserves 126

    Tuning NUMA Node Preference 126

    Memory Performance 126

    Enlightened Guests 127

    Correct Memory Sizing for Child Partitions 127

    Correct Memory Sizing for Root Partition 128

    Storage I/O Performance 128

    Virtual Controllers 128

    Virtual Disks 129

    Block Size Considerations 131

    Sector Size Implications 131

    Block Fragmentation 133

    Pass-through Disks 134

    Advanced Storage Features 134

    NUMA I/O 135

    Offloaded Data Transfer Integration 135

    Unmap Integration 136

    Network I/O Performance 136

    Hyper-V-specific Network Adapter 137

    Install Multiple Hyper-V-specific Network Adapters on Multiprocessor virtual machines 137

    Offload Hardware 137

    Network Switch Topology 137

    VLAN Performance 138

    Dynamic VMQ 138

    MAC Spoofing Guidance 140

    Single Root I/O Virtualization 140

    Live Migration 140

    Performance Tuning for SAP Sales and Distribution 142

    Operating System Tunings on the Server 142

    Tunings on the Database Server 143

    Tunings on SAP Application Server 144

    Monitoring and Data Collection 146

    Performance Tuning for OLTP Workloads 148

    Server Under Test Tunings 148

    SQL Server Tunings for OLTP Workloads 149

    Disk Storage Tunings 151

    TPC-E Database Size and Layout 152

    Client Systems Tunings 152

    Monitoring and Data Collection 153

    Root Counters 154

    Resources 156

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    Performance Tuning Guidelines for Windows Server 2012 April 12, 2013 Abstract

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