Phonemes and morphemes

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Group: FING - 1914
Written by: Umarova Farangis
Supervisor: Reymov Bekkenbaur

The course paper investigates phonemes and morphemes, their structural and lexical features. Our spoken languages are divided into smaller components known as phonemes and morphemes. Phonemes are the smallest unit of communication and morphemes are the basic units of meaning within words. The phoneme notion was crucial in the development of phonological theory in the 20th century. The aim of the course paper is to research about phonemes and morphemes. It aims to provide in-depth information about their structure and types. The main language material of the research has been gathered from scientific works, such as articles, books and the internet.

Phonology is a discipline of linguistics that analyzes how languages organize their sounds. The study of whether sounds can be organized into separate units within a language, termed phonemes, is an important aspect of classical, pre-generative schools of phonology. "Phoneme" is the psychological equivalent of a speech sound. The phrase was used by Saussure (1879), and adopted by the Polish Kazan school linguists Jan Baudouin de Courtenay and Mikolaj Kruszewski. Phoneme is a unit of sound that can differentiate one word from another in a given language.
Henry Sweet (1877) was the first to distinguish between "narrow" and "wide" transcription. Phonemes can be detected using the minimal pairs approach (commutation test or substitution method) This involves finding pairs of words that differ in one phoneme. For example, ban – fan is a pair of words which differ in meaning due to a single sound shift. The phoneme is the core idea in phonology. It is a separate category of sounds that all native speakers of a language perceive as more or less the same. Phonemes are not concrete entities since they are categories rather than actual sounds. They are abstract, theoretical types or groups that are only psychologically real.
Morphology is the study of words, how they are produced, and how they relate to other words in the same language. It examines the structure of words and word pieces such stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also investigates components of speech, intonation, and stress. Bloomfield identifies four possible arrangements for linguistic forms: Order, Selection, Modulation, and Phonetic Modification. /z/ was regarded as the basic form, with /s/ and /iz/ serving as alternants. /blaek/ can appear alone or in combination with other constituents while maintaining the same meaning. Lexical morphemes are words that express entire lexical meaning and are related with an item, quality, action, or number of reality, such as lip, red, go, one, and so on. They could be lexical or grammatical in terms of function. A root morpheme is a word that has the same meaning across the corpus. The main concept or meaning is present in all terms containing the same root. Roots have a wide distribution, meaning they can appear anywhere in the word—initial, medial, or final. Roots are morphemes that can't occur on their own. The word 'Blueberry' is made up of two affixes: Blue and Berry. In the word 'Bluish' the free root morpheme 'blue' is coupled with the affix 'ish' in the word Bluish. The morpheme is a grammatical unit with a sound form and meaning that only appears in speech as part of a word. Morphemes are the smallest class of sounds that lead to changes in the meaning of the word. There are roughly 44 phonemes in the English language.
The course paper analyzes both morphemes and phonemes with examples, emphasizing on their main special features, differences between them.
Download 16.37 Kb.

Download 16.37 Kb.