• Accounting of inventories (including spare parts) entered in consequence of withdrawal from fixed assets in renewal (reconstruction, upgrading, repair) stage
  • Accounting of auto-tires
  • Chosen methods of accounting for incomes, current expenses and costs
  • Income and expenses on ordinary activities
  • Miscellaneous income and expenses
  • Accounting of inventories disposal




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    Accounting of inventories disposal




    1. The Inventories written-off to production, sold to the outside, retired on the other bases are estimated under an average prime cost.

    2. Output of materials to manufacture is understood as their delivery from warehouse directly for rendering services (performance of works, manufacturing of products) as well issue of materials for management needs of the Company.

    3. The source accounting documents for material delivery from warehouses include:

    1. name of material;

    2. quantity;

    3. price (accounting price);

    4. amount as well as purpose of realization - number (code) and (or) name of the type of service (maintenance, repair, starting-up and adjustment works etc.))

    1. On actually spent materials, the subdivision – recipient of materials – draws up the Report on the spent materials specifying name, quantity, accounting price and amount of each item, number (code) and (or) type of service (maintenance, repairs, starting-up and adjustment works etc.) for implementation of which the materials are output, and (or) number (code) and (or) description of expenses, quantity and amount of excessive expenses and their reasons; volumes of performed works are specified if necessary.

    2. Write-off of materials from the sub-account of the corresponding subdivision of the organization and accounting of their cost to expenses of manufacture (depending on purposes of use of the materials) is performed on the basis of the Report specified above.

    3. Transfer of inventories that have features of fixed assets and value not exceeding 20000 Rubles per a unit in manufacture is registered by acts of transfer of a tool, inventory, inventories with fixed assets feature into operation. After transfer into manufacture these inventories are recorded in quantative account in relation to inventory custodians. Write-off from quantative account is performed according to wear out basing on the Act of write-off of materials with fixed assets features.

    4. Capital repairs and construction of items of own fixed assets can be carried out by outside contractor organizations using give-and-take materials of the Company. Transfer of inventories contractor organization is recorded in the accouting of the Company by records on debit of sub-account "Materials transferred to processing to outside" in correspondence with sub-accounts of inventories accounting. These materails are written-off on accounting accounts of the relevant expenses as contractor organizations submit Acceptance certificates of f. No. КС-2 and Certificates on cost of performed works and expenses of f. No. КС-3.




        • Accounting of inventories (including spare parts) entered in consequence of withdrawal from fixed assets in renewal (reconstruction, upgrading, repair) stage.




    1. Inventories (including spare parts) remaining after retirement of fixed assets and other retirement are estimated basing on the current market cost for the date of acceptance to accounting. Current market cost means the amount of monetary funds, which can be received as a result of sale of the specified assets.

    2. If there is no such information on the current market value, inventories credited after withdrawal of fixed assets at renewal/liquidation stage are estimated according to accounting value of the latter according to the time of acquisition of similar inventories in view of percent of actual depreciation of credited items (not lower the cost of scrap metal).

    3. Inventories credited as a result of withdrawal from fixed assets at renewal/liquidation stage are accounted apart from new inventories as independent nomenclature numbers.

    4. Write-off in manufacture, sale to outside, retirement of inventories credited as a result of withdrawal from fixed assets at renewal/liquidation stage on other grounds is carried out on prime cost of each stock unit.







    1. Auto-tires (tire cover, chamber and flap) being at a vehicle and included in the initial cost are accounted in the structure of fixed assets.

    2. Source documents necessary for registration in the accounting of business transactions on movement of auto-tires are:

    - consignment notes and other accompanying documents (at acceptance and entering of auto-tires in accounting records);

    - account card of auto-tire (during operation process);



    - register (certificate) on write-off of auto-tires.

    1. Moving, the received defects, repairs, quantity of the passed kilometers are reflected in the account card. Data about actual run of the tire basing on a speedometer readings are entered in the account card monthly.

    2. To determine grounds of transfer of auto-tires to operation, the purpose of their use is established. The tires can be transferred for:

    1. replacement of worn out or unfit for use by other reasons;

    2. season change ("winter", "summer");

    3. replacement of worn out seasonal.

    1. Replacement of the tires worn out or unfit for use by other reasons is considered as routine repairs (replacement of the worn out parts) of the car, which is related to the fixed assets. In this case the Company is governed by the general rules regulating the procedure of write-off to production costs of expenses for repairs of an item of fixed assets (purchase of new ones and their installation on the vehicle). Expenses for repairs of auto-tires subject to reconditioning are included in material expenses in the charges for ordinary activities.

    2. Cost of the tires purchased apart from a vehicle is booked on the account 10, the subaccount "Automobile tires in stock". Replacement of tires at a vehicle is made in the following cases:

    • full wear-out of tires and unfitness for operation;

    1. damages during operation process;

    1. In case of damage of tires during operation process, the driver is liable to inform the authorized person about the date of replacement, factory number of the replaced tire, speedometer readings for the date of installation. Data about installation on a vehicle are entered in an account card of auto-tires.

    2. At the moment of installation on a vehicle of tires, their cost is written off to production costs and remains to be registered in the quantitative account.

    3. Cost of the purchased season tires is registered on the account 10, the sub account "Auto-tires in stock". At the moment of installation of season tires on a vehicle their account is reflected in the account "Auto-tires in operation". Data about installation and removal of season tires from a vehicle, run for a season, are reflected in the account card of auto-tires. Cost of the season tires, which worn out or have become unfit for use for other reasons, is related to the accounts of the accounting of production costs at the moment of write-off, within the norms approved by the Ministry of Transport of Russia. Write-off of the season tires worn out or become unfit for use by another reasons is performed by means of the certificate on write-off of auto-tires.

    4. The worn out tires, which are not subject to reconditioning, are registered on the account 10, the subaccount "Other materials" as utility waste according to list prices.




      • Chosen methods of accounting for incomes, current expenses and costs




        • General approaches to income and expenses accounting




    1. The Company divides income into income of ordinary activities and miscellaneous income.

    2. Receipts connected with rendering services, performance of works, sale of products and goods to the outside organizations are income from ordinary activities.

    3. The Company recognizes the following as income from ordinary activities:

    • income from transmission and transit of electric power;

    • income from services on technological connection to the grid,

    • income from performance of civil and erection works;

    • income from realization of other works and services of industrial nature;

    • income from realization of other works and services of non-industrial nature

    1. Income from services on transmission and transit of the electric power includes all incomes of transmission of power consumed by the market entities in the region of service of the Company. Transmission of electric power is a regulated type of activity

    2. The income from services on technological connection to the grid includes the Company’s income received as a result of performance of a complex of works (actions) of organizational and technical character aimed at possibility of transmission of electric power to power receivers of legal entities and individuals according to the parameters declared by them as well as on maintenance of power delivery to power stations. Services on technological connection are a regulated type of activity.

    3. The income received by the Company as a result of performance of works and services within the frameworks of construction contracts for the outside organizations is related to income from performance of civil and erection works.

    4. All income connected with performance of other works and services for the Company (except for services on transmission and transit of electric power, services on technological connection, performance of civil and erection works) is related to income of performance of other works and services.

    5. All another income, which is not connected with performance of works and services on ordinary activities, is related to miscellaneous income. The sale proceeds are accepted to accounting in the sum estimated in money terms, equal to the amount of receipt of monetary funds and other property and (or) the amount accounts receivable.

    6. Income of the Company according to the accrual concept is recognized in the accounting period, in which it took place, irrespective of actual time of receipt of the monetary funds connected with these facts.

    7. The income received (accrued) within the accounting period but related to the future accounting periods as well as the forthcoming receipts of debts on the shortage revealed in the accounting period for the last years, and difference between the amount subject to collecting from guilty persons and the cost of values accepted to accounting at revealing of shortage and damage are recognized to be income of the future periods.

    8. The Company divides expenses into expenses for ordinary activities and miscellaneous expenses.

    9. Expenses for ordinary activities are expenses connected with rendering of services, performance of works.

    10. Expenses for ordinary activities are formed of the expenses connected with production (prime cost of services, works, products), management costs.

    11. First of all, the following expenses are related to expenses for ordinary activities:

    1. income from transmission and transit of electric power;

    2. income from services on technological connection to the grid;

    3. income from performance of civil and erection works;

    4. income from realization of other works and services of industrial nature;

    5. income from realization of other works and services of non-industrial nature;

    1. The prime cost of services on transmission and transit of electric power represents the expenses connected with the maintenance and operation of:

    1. power transmission lines, distribution devices, substations and other constructions and the equipment intended for transmission and distribution of electric power;

    2. means of metering and control of electric power.

    1. The prime cost of services on technological connection to the grid represents the expenses connected with performance of a complex of works (actions) of organizational and technical character aimed at a possibility of transmission of electric power to the power receivers of legal entities and individuals according to the parameters declared by them as well as ensuring of power supply by power stations.

    2. The prime cost of civil and erection works represents the total expenses connected with performance of works and services within the frameworks of construction contracts for the outside organizations.

    1. The prime cost of other works and services represents the total expenses connected with performance of other works and services for the Company.

    1. Expenses are recognized by the Company in two cases:

    1. when there is a confidence that expenses are the reason for deriving corresponding income. Expenses can be recognized to be the charge directly (in case of performance of services, works, recognition of management or commercial charges) or through retirement of assets, for formation of which the Company has earlier born these expenses (fixed assets, Inventories, own products etc.). In this case expenses for ordinary activities or miscellaneous expenses (retirement of other assets, which are distinct from products) are recognized in the accounting;

    2. when expenses cannot be directly correlated with any income or it becomes obvious that expected income on corresponding expenses will not be received. In this case miscellaneous costs are recognized in the accounting (e.g. payment of interest under credits, expenses for dead storage of the fixed assets etc.) or losses. Expenses are recognized as well in case of occurrence of the obligation without the fact of receipt of property.

    Expenses for ordinary activities are accepted to accounting in the sum estimated in money terms, equal to the amount of payment in money or another form or the amount of accounts payable.

    1. All expenses, which are not connected with performance of works and services on ordinary activities are related to miscellaneous expenses.

    2. Expenses are recognized by the Company in two cases:

    1. when there is a confidence that expenses are the reason for deriving corresponding income. Expenses can be recognized to be the charge directly (in case of performance of services, works, recognition of management or commercial charges) or through retirement of assets, for formation of which the Company has earlier born these expenses (fixed assets, Inventories, own products etc.). In this case expenses for ordinary activities or miscellaneous costs (retirement of other assets, which are distinct from products) are recognized in the accounting;

    2. when expenses cannot be directly correlated with any income or it becomes obvious that expected income on corresponding expenses will not be received. In this case miscellaneous costs are recognized in the accounting (e.g. payment of interest under credits, expenses for dead storage of the fixed assets etc.) as losses. Expenses are recognized as well in case of occurrence of the obligation without the fact of receipt of property.

    1. Expenses for ordinary activities are accepted to accounting in the sum estimated in money terms, equal to the amount of payment in money or another form or the amount of accounts payable.

    2. General business expenses are recognized in full as management expenses and are recognized at the prime cost of rendered services, performed works completely in the accounting year of their recognition as expenses for ordinary activities




        • Income and expenses on ordinary activities




    1. Income from services on transmission of electric power is recognized on the basis of Completion certificates relating to the volume of the rendered services on transmission of electric power under the contracts concluded with Sales company (companies). The certificate is drawn up on the basis of the monthly Summary spreadsheet of power consumption (in natural measuring instruments) with regard to consumers.

    2. Income on transmission of electric power is recognized in the accounting for the date of the approval by the parties of calculations of the Certificate of the volume of rendered services on transmission of electric power.

    3. The ground for formation of sale proceeds and settlement with customers is the certificate of the rendered services on technological connection to the grid. Incomes of services on technological connection to the grid are recognized in the accounting for the date of the approval by the parties of the Certificate of rendered services.

    4. Articles of expenses on transmission and transit of electric power have the following structure:

    1. expenses for maintenance of electrical grid equipment and means of account and control over the electric power:

    • direct expenses for repair and operating and technical service of power grid equipment:

        • operating and technical service of power grid equipment;

        • current repairs of power grid equipment;

        • capital repairs of power grid equipment;

    • direct expenses for repair and operating and technical service of means of account and control over the electric power:

        • operating and technical service of means of account and control over the electric power;

        • current repairs of means of account and control over the electric power;

        • capital repairs of means of account and control over the electric power;

    • depreciation of power grid equipment and means of account and control over the electric power;

    1. technological consumption of energy resources for transmission of electric power;

    2. expenses for services on transit of incoming electric power;

    3. expenses for measures on reduction of electric power losses;

    4. startup expenses;

    5. general production expenses.

    1. Process of transmission of electric power is characterized by absence of work in progress. Expenses incurred at performance of the given type of activity are recognized as charges in the full amount.

    2. The account "Main production unit" includes the direct expenses connected directly with rendering of services on transmission and transit of electric power, the indirect expenses connected with servicing of the main production as well as expenses of auxiliary production units. Expenses of auxiliary production units are written off from the account "Auxiliary production units" to the account "Main production unit". The indirect expenses connected with servicing of production are written off from the account "General production expenses" to the account "Main production unit".

    3. Direct expenses include expenses directly related the certain item of expenses accounting (materials and spare parts, wages of production workers, services of the outside organizations etc.), can be directly related to it and their relation is economically profitable.

    4. Indirect (overhead) expenses include expenses related to the item of expenses accounting (upkeep of personnel which is not production personnel, the maintenance of buildings, constructions of the equipment, inventory, depreciation of fixed assets, expenses for labor protection etc.), but it is impossible or economically unprofitable to relate them directly to the certain item of accounting.

    5. The account "Auxiliary production units" includes expenses connected with processes being auxiliary in relation to the main technological processes on transmission and transit of electric power.

    6. Services of mechanization and transportation are related to auxiliary production units.

    7. Accounting of expenses on the account «Auxiliary production units» is divided into direct and indirect. Indirect expenses are recorded directly on the account «Auxiliary production units» without preliminary accumulation on the account «General production expenses».

    8. Expenses of auxiliary production units are included in the prime cost of the products (works, services), during which production the products (works, services) of the considered structural divisions were used.

    9. Overhead expenses of auxiliary production units is distributed between directions of use (main production unit, general production expenses and another activity) proportionally to the volume of auxiliary production works and services performed by a workshop in conventional accounting units.

    10. The distributed cost of products, works, services of auxiliary production units is included in expenses of the main production unit, general production, general business expenses with regard to elements of expenses.

    11. The account "General production expenses" is used for the accounting of information on expenses for management of branches of the Company and servicing of divisions of the main production unit.

    12. The information on general production expenses is formed in with regard to articles and elements of expenses.

    13. The expenses booked on the account "General production expenses" are subject to distribution proportionally to the amounts of actually accrued wages of the main production workers with regard to the performed types of activity.

    14. The account "General business expenses" is used for the accounting of management expenses providing operation of the Company as the integral business entity, which are not connected directly with operation of main production unit and auxiliary production units of the Company in branches and structural divisions.

    15. The information on general business expenses is formed with regard to the articles and elements of expenses.

    16. Income and expenses of ordinary activities formed in branches of the Company (places of their occurrence) monthly, the turnovers formed on accounts of sale proceeds accounting are transferred to the Management of the Company from the account 79 "Intra-organizational settlements" for formation of summary sale proceeds.

    17. Similarly with income, expenses of ordinary activities generated on accounts of the accounting of expenses in branches of the Company (places of their occurrence) with regard to articles of expenses and elements of expenses, monthly are transferred to the Management of the Company from the account 79 "Intra-organizational settlements" for formation of the summary amount of expenses of the Company.




        • Miscellaneous income and expenses




    1. The Company recognizes income on independent business transaction not being the subject of its activity but performed for the purpose of data acquisition of incomes, to be miscellaneous income, namely:

    1. income connected with sale of assets of the Company, distinct from monetary funds, products, goods:

    • income of disposal of fixed assets;

    • income of disposal of intangible assets;

    • income of disposal of materials and stocks;

    • income of disposal of other assets;

    1. income received under separate independent contracts:

    • income of lease of property;

    • income of securities holding;

    • incomes of participation in authorized capitals of other organizations;

    • profit received as a result of joint activity;

    • interests for using monetary funds of the Company;

    1. miscellaneous income.




    1. The Company recognizes income, which are not connected with production processes and circulation, to be miscellaneous income. As a rule, they are not made out by separate independent contracts and thus it is impossible to reveal the actions specially directed to their deriving. Income of receipt of fines and penalties, indemnity for losses suffered by the Company, gratuitous reception of property, write-off of uncalled accounts payable, formation of course differences etc. are related to such income. This income is one-off gain, rather than periodic.

    2. The recognition of the income of sale of products and other property is carried out by the Company at the moment of transition of the property right to the given property to the buyer. The moment of transition of the property right is determined according to conditions of the concluded contracts. As a rule, transition of the property right from the seller to the buyer is carried out at the moment of shipment of products, if otherwise is provided by the contract.

    3. The Company recognizes miscellaneous expenses as follows:

    1. expenses connected with deriving of other income:

    • expenses on profitable retirement of property (exchange, sale, transfer as the contribution to the authorized capital);

    • expenses on fulfillment of fee-based contracts, which are not related to the category of transactions of ordinary activities;

    • expenses, which are the result of the target actions (transactions), grounded by production or business necessity, but not accompanied by the corresponding incomes as periodic (expenses for dead storage of fixed assets, payment of interest under credits and loans), and one-off gain (connected with participation in authorized capitals of other organizations, on cancellation of production orders, on formation of estimated reserves etc.).

    1. expenses being by-product of business transactions, on which there were no any actions undertaken specially for their implementation (rate differences);

    2. expenses revealed in case, when the undertaken actions led to unexpected or even opposite expected result - to the loss (the paid penalties, fines, forfeits, written off uncollectable accounts receivable);

    3. charitable and social expenses.

    1. Besides, miscellaneous income and expenses are recognized by the Company following the results of the inventories:

    1. during acceptance to the accounting of surpluses of property, the corresponding amount is booked to the account of income in estimation at the market value of excessive property;

    2. during write-off of shortage of property over rates of natural loss provided that guilty persons are not found out or the court refused collecting the loss from them, the corresponding amount is booked to the account of expenses in estimation at actual cost of the missing property.

    1. Cost of excessive property is determined as cost of the last on time of purchase of similar property in view of actual deterioration of the items revealed as surpluses. In case of absence of the facts of purchase of similar property and impossibility of the proved determination of their cost, the current cost of excessive property is determined on the basis of the report of an independent expert (appraiser).

    2. Rates of natural loss for the purposes of accounting are approved by the order of the Director of the Company or the persons authorized by him/her within the limits of the parameters established by regulatory acts of the Federal executive bodies.

    3. Extreme income of receipt occurring as a consequence of force majeure of business activities (natural disaster, fire, accident, nationalization etc.) are related to miscellaneous income:

    1. insurance compensation;

    2. covering of losses from extreme events (fires, accidents etc.);

    3. liquidating cost of unfit property;

    4. other extreme incomes.

    1. The Company reflects extreme expenses occurring as a consequence of force majeure of business activities (natural disaster, earthquake, flooding, fire, accident, nationalization of property etc.), e.g. payments for the damage made to environment, write-off of residual cost of items of fixed assets lost or unfit for reconditioning, cost of the lost or spoiled materials and the goods etc. in the structure of extreme expenses.



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    Accounting of inventories disposal

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