You can improve the performance of Active Directory®, especially in large environments, by following these tuning steps:
Increase address space by using 64-bit processors.
64-bit architecture is preferred for running Active Directory. The large address space makes it possible to equip the server with enough RAM to cache all or most of the Active Directory database in memory. It also provides room for expansion to add RAM if the database size grows. For more information, see the article about Active Directory performance on 64-bit processors in "Resources" later in this guide. Note that Windows Server 2008 R2 is supported only on 64-bit processors.
Use an appropriate amount of RAM.
Active Directory uses the server’s RAM to cache as much of the directory database as possible. This reduces disk access and improves performance. The Active Directory cache in Windows Server 2008 R2 is permitted to grow. However, it is still limited by the virtual address space and how much physical RAM is on the server.
To determine whether more RAM is needed for the server, monitor the percentage of Active Directory operations that are being satisfied from the cache by using the Reliability and Performance Monitor. Examine the lsass.exe instance (for Active Directory Domain Services) or Directory instance (for Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services) of the Database\Database Cache % Hit performance counter. A low value indicates that many operations are not being satisfied from the cache. Adding more RAM might improve the cache hit rate and the performance of Active Directory. You should examine the counter after Active Directory has been running for several hours under a typical workload. The cache starts out empty when the Active Directory service is restarted or the machine is rebooted, so the initial hit rate is low.
The use of the Database Cache % Hit counter is the preferred way to assess how much RAM a server needs. Or, a guideline is that when the RAM on a server is twice the physical size of the Active Directory database on disk, it likely gives sufficient room for caching the entire database in memory. However, in many scenarios this is an overestimation because the actual part of the database frequently used is only a fraction of the entire database.
Use a good disk I/O subsystem.
Ideally, the server is equipped with sufficient RAM to be able to cache the “hot” parts of the database entirely in memory. However, the on-disk database must still be accessed to initially populate the memory cache, when it accesses uncached parts of the database, and when it writes updates to the directory. Therefore, appropriate selection of storage is also important to Active Directory performance.
We recommend that the Active Directory database folder be located on a physical volume that is separate from the Active Directory log file folder. In the Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services installation wizard, these are known as data files and data recovery files. Both folders should be on a physical volume that is separate from the operating system volume. The use of drives that support command queuing, especially Serial Attached SCSI or SCSI, might also improve performance.
Considerations for Read-Heavy Scenarios
The typical directory workload consists of more query operations than update operations. Active Directory is optimized for such a workload. To obtain the maximum benefit, the most important performance tuning step is to make sure that the server has sufficient RAM to be able to cache the most frequently used part of the database in memory. Query performance on a freshly rebooted server, or after the Active Directory service has been restarted, might initially be low until the cache is populated. Active Directory automatically populates the cache as queries visit parts of the directory.
Considerations for Write-Heavy Scenarios
Write-heavy scenarios do not benefit as much from the Active Directory cache. To guarantee the transactional durability of data that is written to the directory, Active Directory does not cache disk writes. It commits all writes to the disk before it returns a successful completion status for an operation, unless explicitly requested not to do this. Therefore, fast disk I/O is important to the performance of writes to Active Directory. The following are hardware recommendations that might improve performance for these scenarios:
Hardware RAID controllers.
Battery-backed write caches on the controller.
To determine whether disk I/O is a bottleneck, monitor the Physical Disk\Average Disk Queue Length counter for the volumes on which the Active Directory database and logs are located. A high queue length indicates a large amount of concurrent disk I/O activity. Choosing a storage system to improve write performance on those volumes might improve Active Directory performance.
Indexing of attributes is useful when you search for objects that have the attribute name in the filter. Indexing can reduce the number of objects that must be visited when you evaluate the filter. However, this reduces the performance of write operations because the index must be updated when the corresponding attribute is modified or added. It also increases the size of your directory database. You can use logging to find the expensive and inefficient queries and consider indexing some attributes that are used in the corresponding queries to improve the search performance. For more information on Active Directory event logging on servers, see "Resources" later in this guide.
Trusts are a way to enable users to authenticate across different forests or domains. If the trust path between the resource and the user is long, then the user might experience high latency because the authentication request must travel through the trust path and return. For example, if a user from the grandchild of a domain tries to log on from a different grandchild in the same forest, the authentication request must travel up the chain from the grandchild to the root and then take the path to the other grandchild. To avoid this, you can create a shortcut trust directly between the two grandchild domains that avoids the long path. However, the administrator must manage trusts. Therefore you must consider how frequently a given trust will be used before you create it. You can create “external trusts” to reduce the trust path when authenticating between inter-forest domains.