• Introduction to Driver Compatibility for Windows Vista
  • Global Issues for Drivers
  • Global Issues for Driver Installation
  • Global Issues for Driver Loading
  • Global Issues for Driver Functionality
  • Key Global Requirements for the Windows Vista Logo
  • Audio Drivers The issues listed in this section describe potential compatibility issues for audio drivers in Windows Vista. Audio Driver Run-Time Issues
  • Audio Driver Functionality Issues
  • Key Audio Driver Requirements for Windows Vista Logo
  • Display Driver Functionality Issues
  • Key Display Driver Requirements for the Windows Vista Logo
  • Network Driver Installation Issues
  • Network Driver Run-Time Issues
  • Network Driver Functionality Issues
  • Key Network Driver Requirements for the Windows Vista Logo
  • Print and Imaging Drivers
  • Print and Imaging Driver Functionality Issues
  • Key Print and Imaging Logo Requirements
  • Key Storage Driver Requirements for the Windows Vista Logo
  • Streaming Media Driver Run-Time Issues
  • Streaming Media Driver Functionality Issues
  • Installation Device Finish-Install Actions in Windows Vista http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/driver/install/Finish_Install.mspx Audio Drivers
  • Driver Compatibility for Windows Vista




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    Driver Compatibility for Windows Vista -


    Driver Compatibility for Windows Vista

    March 8, 2006 - ARCHIVE





    Abstract

    This paper provides information about backward compatibility issues that drivers that are implemented for Microsoft® Windows® XP and Microsoft Windows Server™ 2003 might encounter in the Microsoft Windows Vista™ operating system. It provides pointers to information that driver developers can use to update their drivers to work properly in Windows Vista.

    This information applies for the following operating systems:
    Microsoft Windows Vista
    Microsoft Windows Server code named “Longhorn”

    This is an early preview draft of this information. Updates to this paper are announced in the Microsoft Hardware Newsletter. The current version of this paper is maintained on the Web at:


    http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/driver/WDK/DrvCompat_Vista.mspx

    References and resources discussed here are listed at the end of this paper.



    Contents

    Introduction to Driver Compatibility for Windows Vista 3

    Global Issues for Drivers 3

    Global Issues for Driver Installation 4

    Global Issues for Driver Loading 4

    Global Issues for Driver Functionality 5

    Key Global Requirements for the Windows Vista Logo 5

    Audio Drivers 6

    Audio Driver Run-Time Issues 6

    Audio Driver Functionality Issues 6

    Key Audio Driver Requirements for Windows Vista Logo 7

    Display Drivers 7

    Display Driver Functionality Issues 7

    Key Display Driver Requirements for the Windows Vista Logo 8

    Network Drivers 8

    Network Driver Installation Issues 8

    Network Driver Run-Time Issues 8

    Network Driver Functionality Issues 8

    Key Network Driver Requirements for the Windows Vista Logo 9

    Print and Imaging Drivers 9

    Print and Imaging Driver Loading Issues 9

    Print and Imaging Driver Functionality Issues 9

    Key Print and Imaging Logo Requirements 10

    Storage Drivers 10

    Key Storage Driver Requirements for the Windows Vista Logo 10

    Streaming Media Drivers 10

    Streaming Media Driver Run-Time Issues 10

    Streaming Media Driver Functionality Issues 11

    Resources 11

    General 11

    Installation 11

    Audio Drivers 11

    Display Drivers 12

    Network Drivers 12

    Print and Imaging Drivers 12

    Streaming Media Drivers 12




    Disclaimer

    This is a preliminary document and may be changed substantially prior to final commercial release of the software described herein.


    The information contained in this document represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation on the issues discussed as of the date of publication. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication.
    This White Paper is for informational purposes only. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT.
    Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the user. Without limiting the rights under copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of Microsoft Corporation.
    Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from Microsoft, the furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property.
    Unless otherwise noted, the example companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places and events depicted herein are fictitious, and no association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, email address, logo, person, place or event is intended or should be inferred.
    © 2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
    Microsoft, Windows, Windows Server, and Windows Vista are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
    The names of actual companies and products mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.

    Introduction to Driver Compatibility for Windows Vista


    The Microsoft® Windows Vista™ operating system introduces a number of changes that affect drivers. Drivers that were created for earlier versions of Microsoft Windows® might require updating to run correctly in Windows Vista. This white paper provides a summary of upcoming changes with Windows Vista that can potentially cause compatibility problems for older drivers. This paper will be updated as new information becomes available.

    Note: Although this paper focuses on Windows Vista, the issues discussed here also apply to the Microsoft Windows Server™ code named “Longhorn” operating system.

    The issues are grouped into five basic categories.



    • Installation: The driver might not install as it did in earlier systems. For example, the user access protection (UAP) feature may complicate finish-install actions in Windows Vista.

    • Loading: The driver might not load as it did in earlier systems. For example, the 64-bit version of Windows Vista does not load unsigned drivers.

    • Run Time: The driver might not run as it did in earlier systems. This category includes a range of issues that can occur during run time, some that are quite serious and others that are relatively minor. For example, at the serious end of the spectrum, drivers that extend or replace kernel services by hooking the system service tables cause a bug check in the 64-bit version of Windows Vista. An example of a less serious issue is that some deprecated device driver interface (DDI) routines simply return an error code in Windows Vista.

    • Functionality: The driver runs, but its behavior might differ significantly from earlier versions of Windows. For example, Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) 5.x drivers must go through a translation layer, which reduces their performance.

    • Logo Requirements. There have been a number of changes to what is required for a driver to receive a Windows Vista logo. This paper summarizes some of the key new or changed requirements.


    Important: The Windows Vista Logo Program for Hardware defines requirements for drivers that are based on logo program that is criteria published in Windows Logo Program Requirements Suite, Version 3.0. These requirements also define the precise industry specifications for creating system and device hardware and drivers that are compatible with Windows operating systems. Some key issues related to the Windows Vista logo program are summarized in this paper; however, refer to the current logo program documentation for a definitive list of requirements.

    Global Issues for Drivers


    Changes in Windows Vista affect drivers for many, if not all, device classes. Generally, these changes were made to enhance security and reliability. This section discusses these global issues. The remaining sections in this paper discuss issues that are specific to a particular device class.

    Global Issues for Driver Installation


    • All driver files that are referenced in the INF must be in the package. Driver files—except those that are part of the operating system—must be imported into the driver store before the package can be installed. All nonsystem driver files that the INF references must be in the driver package. If not, the driver files are not successfully imported into the driver store and installation fails.

    Solution: Make sure that the all nonsystem driver files are present in the driver package.

    • Class installers and co‑installers should not display a user interface (UI). All device installs occur in the noninteractive system context. This means that class installers and co-installers cannot display a UI during the installation itself.

    Solution: Class installers and co-installers should not attempt to display a UI, except as part of a finish-install action.

    For more information, see the white paper titled “Device Finish-Install Actions in Windows Vista.”



    • Class installers and co-installers should not expect client-side installation. Earlier versions of Windows would attempt a client-side install if a system-based install returned an error code such as ERROR_REQUIRES_INTERACTIVE_WINDOWSTATION. Windows Vista does not support client-side installs. If the class installers or co-installers return an error code such as ERROR_REQUIRES_INTERACTIVE_WINDOWSTATION, the install fails.

    Solution: Class installers and co-installers should not expect client-side installation to be available and should not return error codes such as ERROR_REQUIRES_INTERACTIVE_WINDOWSTATION.

    • UAP may complicate finish-install actions. In Windows Vista, user account protection (UAP, formerly called least-privileged user account or LUA) enables users to run at low privilege most of the time; UAP elevates privilege only when necessary. If finish-install actions or finish-install pages run when anyone other than the local administrator is logged on to the system, Windows Vista prompts the user for consent and the user must supply administrator credentials. If the user does not supply consent and credentials, the finish-install actions do not run and the next user who logs on is prompted for consent and credentials.

    Solution: Drivers that use finish-install actions should fail gracefully if the user does not provide the consent or the required credentials.

    For more information, see the white paper titled “Device Finish-Install Actions in Windows Vista.”



    Global Issues for Driver Loading


    • Digital signatures are required for 64-bit kernel-mode drivers. Signed catalog (.cat) files are required for all kernel-mode packages that are to be installed on the 64-bit editions of Windows Vista. This applies to any software module that loads in kernel mode, including device drivers, filter drivers, and kernel services. The operating system does not load unsigned kernel modules that lack a signed catalog file.

    There are two ways to obtain an appropriately signed catalog file:

    • Obtain a Windows Vista logo. Drivers that pass Windows Hardware Quality Lab (WHQL) testing receive a catalog file that is signed with the WHQL certificate.

    • Obtain a publisher identity certificate (PIC) and use the PIC to sign the package’s catalog file. To obtain a PIC, a publisher must first obtain a VeriSign Class 3 Commercial Software Publisher Certificate and then use that certificate to obtain a PIC from Microsoft that can be used to sign kernel-mode modules intended for 64-bit Windows Vista.

    For boot drivers, hardware manufacturers must also use a PIC to embed a signature in the driver binaries. This requirement applies to CD-ROM and disk drivers, ATA/ATAPI controllers, mouse and other pointing devices, SCSI and RAID controllers, and system devices.

    Solution: Sign all catalog files for 64-bit drivers by using a PIC or get a WHQL-signed catalog file by obtaining a Windows Vista logo. Sign boot driver binaries by using a PIC.

    For more information, see the white paper titled “Digital Signatures for Kernel Modules on x64-based Systems Running Windows Vista.”



    Global Issues for Driver Functionality


    • Session 0 changes can prevent UI from appearing. In earlier versions of Windows, both services and applications could run in Session 0. Windows Vista isolates services in Session 0 and runs applications in other sessions. This action protects services from attacks that originate in application code, but processes that run in Session 0 have some limitations. The most notable is that they cannot access the display driver. This can prevent user-mode drivers that run as services—primarily print and imaging drivers—from displaying a UI.

    Solution: User-mode drivers that run as services and display a UI must be rewritten so that their UI runs in Session 1 or higher.

    For more information, see the white papers titled “Impact of Session 0 Isolation on Services and Drivers in Windows Vista” and “AsyncUI Notifications.”



    • Registry reflection changes can restrict keys from being changed by reflection. The 64-bit version of Windows Vista introduces the concept of ownership for a specific registry key. An installer that creates a registry key can assert ownership of that registry key. When ownership has been asserted for a registry key in one view, only changes made by the owner of that key are reflected in the registry. The key cannot be changed by reflection of changes made in the other registry view. In addition, certain registry keys are owned by the operating system and might not be accessible or modifiable.

    Solution: 64-bit drivers that depend on the registry reflection behavior of earlier 64-bit versions of Windows might need to be updated to accommodate ownership of registry keys.

    For more information, see the white paper titled “Registry Reflection in Windows.”







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