E-Commerce Trend in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Uzbekistan 1
1The history of the emergence and development of the Internet 3
2Use of the Internet for commercial purposes 6
3Trends in the development of e-commerce in Uzbekistan 10
4Econometric analysis of e-commerce development in Uzbekistan 17
The history of e-commerce began to emerge in the 60s of the last century, when two American companies IBM and American Airlines automated the process of booking seats on flights. This system was beneficial for both the airline that has achieved the highest profits by manipulating the prices of free places, and for the buyer. To the ordinary American flights became more affordable due to access to different flights and fares. This system was connected to more than fifty cities via a telephone line and helped to reserve 26,000 passengers per day [1, p.4]. Therefore, for a long time before the advent of the Internet process automation reservation of air tickets showed a positive outlook for the development of e-commerce. Subsequently, the components e-commerce: plastic cards, electronic digital signature, electronic payment systems and money. And in the mid 90s American government for public procurement began to use electronic systems, and American programmer Jeff Bezos opened the well-known online store Amazon [1, p.9], which still remains one of the largest online stores in the world. After that e-commerce has grown throughout various regions of the world.
The history of the emergence and development of the Internet
The progenitor of the Internet can be called the organization ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) - the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under the US Department of Defense (DOD), this agency was then renamed DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). Under the auspices (and funding) of this agency, the ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork) was created.
In December 1969, four nodes of this network were merged: UCLA - Network Test Center, Stanford Research Institute, the University of Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. A year later, there were already fifteen of them, and they used the NCP protocol - Network Control Protocol to exchange packets.
The goal of ARPANET was to enable contractors, universities, and Department of Defense employees involved in defense research and development to communicate over computer networks and share the computing resources of those few powerful computers at that time located in different geographical locations.
In 1975, the experimental network was declared operational, and responsibility for it was assigned to the DCA (US Defense Communications Agency). At the same time, specialists began to develop the basics of TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol - Protocols for controlling the transmission process / Internet protocol).
Such promising and interesting developments attracted the attention of various researchers and research groups. DARPA systematically held informal meetings with them to exchange ideas and discuss experimental results. Since 1979, so many researchers have become involved in the TCP/IP project that DARPA formed an informal committee to coordinate and manage the development of protocols and architectures for the evolving Internet of Things. Called the Internet Configuration and Control Board (ICCB), this group met regularly until 1983, when it was reorganized into the Internet Activities Board (IAB).
In 1983, the TCP/IP protocols were adopted as the US Military Standards (MIL STD), after which all hosts (computers) connected to the APRANET were required to work only with these protocols.
At the same time, the term "Internet" began to spread, while APRANET was divided into two separate networks: MILNET (Military Network) - an unclassified part of the Defense Data Network (DDN) and a new (reduced size) APRANET. The term Internet was used when both networks were meant at once.
ARPANET became the prototype of the modern Internet.
In 1985, under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF), based on the ARPANET technology, the NSFNET network (the National Science Foundation NETwork - the National Science Foundation Network) was created, in the creation of which NASA and the Department of Energy were directly involved. Six large research centers equipped with the latest supercomputers located in different regions of the United States were connected.
The main purpose of creating this network was to provide access to the foundation's computing resources (supercomputers) to researchers from various US universities. The Foundation has set a goal for every scientist, every engineer in the United States to be "connected" to a single network, and therefore set about creating a network with faster channels that would unite numerous regional and local networks. It was the first initiative aimed at providing the widest range of scientific organizations with high-quality and reliable Internet connections, and the NSFNET network was called the Internet backbone (the word "backbone" means "ridge", but in the field of telecommunications the most common translation of this term is the phrase "basic network").
The resulting entity, known as the Unified Internet, the DARPA/NSF Internet, the TCP/IP Internet, or simply the Internet, allows researchers from all related institutions to share information with colleagues across the country as easily as if they were in the next room.
The importance of creating NSFNET cannot be overestimated. Before the advent of the first core network, the Internet was most like a patchwork quilt, consisting of specialized networks interconnected in the most unexpected places. The NSF initiative did not provide for any functions other than transport, its goal was solely to unite disparate segments into a single whole. The result was not slow to affect - it was in 1985 that the number of organizations connected to the Network increased sharply.
By this time, the primary purpose of the NSF backbone network was to provide connectivity between the growing regional networks created by the various university systems. The term "Internet" has been used since 1983 to refer to the concept of interconnected networks.
In May 1993, the NSF radically changed the architecture of the Internet because the government no longer wanted to deal with backbone systems. Instead, NSF designated a number of "network access points" (NAPs) where private commercial core networks could interact with each other. In 1994, NSF announced the construction of four NAPs in San Francisco, New York, Chicago, and Washington, DC. NSF's order for four network access points was completed by Ameritech, PacBell, Sprint and MFS Datanet. An additional access point known as MAE-West was created by MFS Dananet on the West Coast.
The NSFNET backbone was virtually closed, and the NAP architecture evolved into the Internet.
The real "flourishing" of the Internet occurred with the creation of the World Wide Web (WWW) - the World Wide Web Internet, based on the technology of hypertext documents, allowing Internet users to have convenient access to any information located on the global network. And if initially networks were mainly intended for remote access to supercomputers (Telnet service), now the main Internet service is WWW.