Mongolian etymological dictionary compiled by andras rajki 2006 A




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G

gaa : mint bot

gaali : customs

gaans : pipe [Tib gang-zag]

gachuur : larch bot [OM gatira]

gadaa : outside [OM *gada-]

gagnah : weld [Chi]

gagts : alone [OM gagti]

gahay : pig zool [OM gakay]

gal : fire [OM gali, cp. Eve guluvun bonfire]

galav : era [OM galabh, Skt kalpa]

galirah : be tired, sad [OM galira-]

galuu : goose zool [OM galaghun]

galzuu : rabid [OM galdighu, cp. OT *qal-]

gan : steel [OM gang, Chi gang]

gan : drought [OM gang, Chi gan]

ganirah : be mad [OM gani-]

gantig : marble

gants : alone [cp. Man gancuhan; see gagts]

gar : arm, hand [cp. Tur kol arm, Kyr kol, Man gala hand, Eve ngale]

garah : depart [cp. Tur gez- walk, Man gara-, Eve gir-, Kor kada go and korüm step]

gaslah : be sad [OM gasal-, cp. Man gasa-]

gashuun : bitter [OM gasighun and gosighun, cp. Man gosihon]

gatsaa : village

gavar : camphor [OM gabhur, Tib ga-bur, Skt karpura]

gay : woe, disaster [OM gayi, cp. Tur kaygi grief, Kyr kaygi, OT *kadh, Jap kui regret]

gayhah : wonder [OM gayiqa-, cp. Man gaiqa-]

gazar : place [OM gadiar land < *gada-; see gadaa]

gazh : abnormal [OM gadi crooked]

gazhuu : false [OM gadighu < *gadi; see gazh]

gedes : belly

gedreg : backward [OM gederge < *ged-, Tur geri back, Kyr kiyin after, OT *ked-, Jap kita north]

gegee : light; dawn [OM gegeghen < geghen bright < *ge-, cp. Tur gün day, günes sun, OT *kün; see giyh]

geh : say [OM *ge- < *genge- < geme- and keme-, cp. Kyr kengesh counsel, OT *kenge-]

geldreh : walk [OM gelderi-, cp. Tur gel- come, Kyr kel-, OT *kel-]

gem : crime [cp. Tur kem bad, Kyr kem less, worse, OT *kem, Per kam few]

ger : tent, house [OM ger, cp. Tib gur]

gerch : witness [OM gereti, cp. Tuv herechi]

gerel : light, brightness [OM gerel < *geler < *gel-, cp. Man gere, Eve ngeri; see giyh]

gergiy : woman [OM gergen housewife; see ger]

getel : but

gevch : but

gezeg : hair-knot [OM gedige < *ged-; see gedreg]

ginzh : chain [Chi]

gishüün : member [OM gesighün]

giychin : guest [OM geyitin < *geritin; see ger, aylchin]

giyh : be bright [OM geyi- < *geli- < *gel-; see gyalayh]

gol : riverbed; axis [cp. Man golo]

golomt : hearth [OM golomta, cp. Kyr kolomto]

gonzgor : oblong [OM gondigar < *gondi- be oblong, cp. Eve ngonim long]

goozhih : drip [OM goghudi-]

gorhi : stream [OM goriki and goriqa]

goridoh : hope [OM gori-, cp. Tur gör- see, Kyr kör-, OT *kör-]

gots : chiefly

goymon : noodle [Chi gua-mian]

goyo : nice [OM gua, cp. Kor koun, Chi]

gölög : cub, whelp [OM gölige]

gölröh : stare

göröh : plait [OM güre-]

göröö : hunt [OM gürüghe game, cp. Man gurgu animal]

gua : melon [Chi]

gualin : beam

guanz : restaurant [Chi guanji]

guay : lord

guch : thirty num [OM gutin < *gurbhan-on, cp. Man gosin; see gurav]

gudam : corridor

gudamzh : street [OM gudumdi, Chi]

guld : along [OM guldu]

gunih : be sad [OM guni-]

gur : roebuck zool [OM gura]

gurav : three num [OM gurbhan, cp. Kit *ghur (Chinggeltei 2002, 107)]

gurguul : pheasant zool [see hyaruul]

guril : flour [OM gulir]

gutal : boot [OM gutal and gudasun, cp. Man gulha, Jap kutsu, Kor kutu]

guu : ravine [cp. Man go canal, Chi]

guuli : brass [cp. Tuv hola copper, Chi]

guurs : feather [OM gaghursun chaff]

guya : thigh anat [Chi gu]

guyh : ask [OM guyi-, cp. Tur kov- chase away, Jap kou beg]

gün : deep [OM gün]

günzh : princess

güren : might [cp. Kit *gür xan (ko-êr-han) "oberster Herrscher" (Doerfer 1992, 48)]

gürgem : saffron bot [cp. Tib gur-gum, Skt kurkuma]

gürvel : lizard zool [OM görbhel and gölbhür and gölbhürghe, cp. Tur keler]

güü : mare zool [OM geü, cp. Man geo]

güür : bridge [OM *göghür < *göphür, cp. Gre gephyra]

güveh : flatten, sweep

güyh : run [OM güyi-]

güyls : apricot bot [cp. Tur kayisi]

güzee : paunch [OM güdighen, cp. Man güdihe]

güzeelzgene : strawberry bot [OM güdigheldirgene < *güdighen-dirgene; see güzee, zhimsgene]

gyalayh : shine [OM gila- < *gil- < *gel-, cp. Eve gille-, Jap kirameku shine]

gyandan : jail [Chi]

gyant : tungsten



H

haa : where [OM qagha, cp. Tur hani, Kyr kayda, OT *kani]

haa : foreleg [OM qagha < *qa]

haah : close [OM qaghalta < *qaph- cover, cp. Tuv haa-, Tur kapa- and kapat-, Kyr kapkak lid, OT *kap, Jap kaburu and kawa leather]

haalga : doorway [OM qaghalga path, cp. Tuv haalga gate]

haalt : bar [OM qaghalta < *qaph-, cp. Kal havha gate, Tur kapi, Kyr kapka, cp. Tabgach *qabhaghtin (k'o-po-chen) doorkeeper, Kit *qabhaghti (ho-pa-chih) wardrobe (Doerfer 1992, 45, 48); see haah]

haan : emperor [OM qaghan, cp. Kyr kan, Man han, Kor khün great]

hachin : comical

had : rock [OM qada, cp. Tur kaya, Tuv haya, OT *kaya < *kadha, Eve kadar]

had : currant bot [OM qadun(g), cp. Tur kayin beech, Kyr kaying birch, Tuv hading, OT *kadhing]

hadaas : nail, peg [OM qadaghasun < qada-; see hadah]

hadah : nail, drive in [OM qada-, cp. Kyr kada-, Tuv kadag nail, peg, OT *kada]

hadah : mow [OM qadu-]

hadam : in-law [OM qadum, cp. Tur kayin, Kyr kayin, OT *kadhin]

haduur : sickle [OM qadughur < qadu-; see hadah]

haga : apart, split [OM qaga, cp. Tur kak- chisel, Kyr kak- strike, OT *kak]

hagas : half [OM qagas < qaga; see haga]

halah : heat, burn [OM qala-, cp. Eve ella coal]

halah : release, relieve [OM qala-, cp. Man hala-]

halbaga : spoon [OM qalbagan, cp. OT *kalbak, and Tur kasik, Kyr kashik, OT *kashuk < *kalak and *kalan]

haldah : be infected [OM qaldu- dirt]

halgah : fear [OM qalg-]

halgay : nettle bot [OM qalagay < qala-; see halah]

halh : shield [OM qalqan, cp. Tur kalkan, Kyr kalkan, OT *kalka]

halih : float [OM qali-, cp. Tur kalk- rise, Kyr kalki-, OT *kalk]

halim : whale zool [OM qalim, cp. Man kalimu, Kor kore, Jap kujira]

halis : crust [OM qalisun; see hörs]

haliu : otter zool [OM qalighun, cp. Man haylun]

haltsrah : get bald [OM qalti- < *qal-, cp. Kyr kashka-, OT *kashka]

haluun : hot [OM qalaghun < qala-; see halah]

halzan : bald [OM qaldin and qaltiyi- < *qal-; see haltsrah]

hamag : all [OM qamug < qamu-, cp. Tur kamu; see hamah]

hamah : gather [OM qamu-, cp. OT *kamu]

hamgaalah : defend [OM qamagala-]

hamar : nose anat [OM qamar and qabhar]

hamb : bishop [Tib mkan-bo teacher]

hamt : together [OM qamtu < qamu-; see hamah]

hamuu : scab [OM qamaghu]

hana : wall [OM qana, cp. Tuv hana]

hanah : be satisfied [OM qanu-, cp. Tur kan- be satisfied, OT *kan]

hanah : let blood [OM qana-, cp. Tur kana- and kan blood, Kyr kan, Tuv han, OT *kan]

hand : syrup [OM qandu, cp. OT *kant, Per qand sugar, Skt kand]

handgay : elk zool [OM qandagay]

hangah : satisfy [OM qangga-]

hanginah : sound, make noise [OM qanggina-]

hanhlah : smell [OM qangqul-]

hani : mate [OM qani, cp. Jap kanau match]

haniah : cough [OM qaniya-]

hantar : bridle [OM qantara- bind a horse, cp. OT *kantar, Man kantara-]

hantsuy : sleeve [OM qamtiu, Chi]

har : black [OM qara, cp. Tur kara, Kyr kara, OT *kara, Man kara]

haraah : curse [OM qariya-, cp. Kyr karga-, OT *karga, Eve eeri- call]

haraatsay : swallow zool [OM qaraghachay < qara black, cp. Tur kirlangich, OT *kirlangich,  and Tuv haraachigay, OT *karachkay; see har]

harah : look [OM qara-]

haram : avarice [OM qaram < qara; see har]

harandaa : pencil [Russian karandash]

haranga : gong [OM qarangga, Tib]

haranhuy : dark [OM qaranggui < qara, cp. Kyr karanggi; see har]

harayh : jump [OM qarayi-, cp. OT *karghi and *kaz]

hariltsaa : relation

hariu : answer

hariyn : stranger

harshih : contradict

hartsaga : hawk zool [OM qartigay, cp. Kyr karchiga]

haruul : guard [OM qara-, cp. Kyr karool; see harah]

haruul : plane [OM qarughul]

harvah : shoot [OM qarbhu-, cp. Kyr karuu- weapon, Eve garpa ray]

harvin : fat anat [OM qarbhing and arbhing, cp. OT *kazi, Man kalbin]

hasah : cut off [OM qasu-]

hashaa : fence [OM qasigha < *qasi-]

hashir : experienced

hatah : be dry, hard [OM qata-; see hatuu]

hatavch : pole

hatgah : sting, punch [OM qadqu-]

hatsar : cheek [OM qatir]

hatuu : hard [OM qataghu < qata-, cp. Tur kati, Kyr katuu, OT *kat, Kor kutün; see hatah]

havan : swelling [OM qabhang < qabha- swell, cp. Tur kabar-, OT *kapar]

havar : spring [OM qabhur]

havch : crab zool [OM qabhti]

havdah : swell [OM qabhadu-]

havhag : lid [OM qabhqag < *qaph-; see haah]

havi : vicinity [OM qabh]

havirga : rib [OM qabhirga and qabhisun, cp. Tur kaburga, Kyr kabirga, OT *kaburga]

havtas : cardboard [OM qabhtasun < *qabhta-, Kal haptasen; see havtgay]

havtgay : flat [OM qabhtagay < *qabhta- be flat, Kal haptagi flat, cp. Man kapahun flat]

havtgay : wild camel zool [OM qobhusun and qabhan wild boar, cp. OT *kaban]

hayaa : edge [OM qiyaghan, cp. Kyr kiya slope]

hayag : address [Tib]

hayah : cast [OM qaya-]

haych : scissors [OM qayiti, cp. Kyr kaychi, Eve kaik]

hayh : seek [OM qayi- feel out]

haylaas : elm bot [OM qayilasun]

haylah : melt [OM qayil-]

hayhrah : consider [OM qayiqur- < qayi-; see hayh]

hayr : love [OM qayiran pity]

hayr : gravel [OM qayir, cp. Kyr kayrak whetstone]

hayrah : roast, fry [OM qayir-, cp. Tur kavur-, Kyr kuur-, OT *kaghur, Man hari-]

hayrtsag : box, chest [OM qayirtiag < *qaghurtig < *qaphurtig < *qaph-, cp. Tuv haarzhak, OT *kapurchak; see haah]

hazaar : bridle [OM qadighar < qadi-; see hazah]

hazah : bite [OM qadi-]

hazhuu : side [OM qadighu]

hed : how much [OM kedüy < *ked-, Kal kedüü]

heder : obstinate [OM keder wicked, Kal keder, cp. Kyr kezhir obstinate, Jap kitsui hard, intense, brave]

hedgen : bumble-bee zool [OM kedgene, Kal kedgene]

hee : ornament [OM keghe < *kephe, Kal kee; see hev]

heer : brown [OM kegher, Kal keer, cp. Man keire]

heer : steppe [OM keghere, Kal keer, cp. Eve kever]

hegzhüün : arrogant [OM kegidighün < *keg, cp. Kyr kek vengeance]

hehreh : belch [OM kekire-, Kal kekerhe, cp. Man kekere-]

hel : tongue [OM kelen, Kal kelen, cp. Kor hye]

helbereh : deviate [OM kelbere-]

heleh : say [OM kele-, Kal kelehe; see hel]

helgiy : mute [OM kelegey, Kal kelkee]

helhee : contact [OM kelkiye]

helmerch : interpreter [OM kelemerti, Kal kelmerchi; see heleh]

heltiyh : be bent [OM kelteyi-, Kal kelteehe]

hem : measure [OM kem, Kal kem]

hemh : into bits, apart [OM kemki, Kal kemke]

hen : who [OM ken, Kal ken, cp. Tur kim, Kyr kim, Eve ngi]

henee : distress [OM keneghe, cp. Kyr küyüt grief]

hengereg : drum [OM kenggerge, Kal kenggerge]

herchih : cut [OM kerti-, Kal kerchihe, cp. Tur kerte groove, cut]

heree : crow zool [OM keriyen, Kal keree]

hereg : affair [OM kereg necessity, Kal kereg, cp. Tur gerek necessary, Kyr kerek]

hereh : bind [OM kere-, Kal kerhe, cp. Man kergi-]

hereldeh : quarrel [OM kereldü- < *kere-, Kal kereldehe]

herem : wall [OM kerem, Kal kerem]

herem : squirrel zool [OM keremü, Kal kermen]

herhen : how

herüül : quarrel [OM kereghül < *kere-, Kal kerüül; see hereldeh]

heseg : piece [OM keseg, Kal keseg, cp. Kyr kesik, Tur kes- cut, Kyr kes-, OT *kes]

heseh : loiter [OM kese-]

het : flint [OM kete, Kal kete]

het : too much [OM ketü < *keti, cp. Tur gec- pass, cross, Kyr kech-, OT *kech, Eve kete many]

hetsüü : difficult [OM ketighü extra < *keti, Kal ketsüü; see het]

hev : form [OM kebh, cp. Tur gibi like, Kyr kep form, OT *kep]

heveg : husk bot [OM kebheg, Kal keveg, cp. Tur kepek, Kyr kebhek, OT *kebek]

hevel : belly anat [OM kebheli, Kal kevel, cp. Man kefeli]

hevleh : print [OM kebhle- mould < kebh; see hev]

hevreg : fragile [OM kebhereg, cp. Tur gevrek crunchy, Tuv heerek fragile, Kyr kiyra- shatter]

hevteh : lie down, be flat [OM kebh-, Kal keptehe]

hezee : when [OM kediye < *ked-, Kal kezee; see hed]

hiam : sausage

hicheeh : endeavour, be diligent [OM kitighe-]

hilen : velvet [OM kiling, Kal kileng]

hilen : anger [OM kiling, Kal kileng]

hir : dirt [OM kir, Kal kir, cp. Tur kir, Kyr kir, OT *kir]

hirtey : approximately [see hir]

hiv : moth [OM kibhe]

hiveh : ruminate [OM kebhi-, Kal kevhe, cp. Tur gev-, OT *keb]

hivs : carpet [OM kebhis, Kal kives, cp. Tuv hevis, OT *kebiz, Tib kebs]

hiy : air [OM kei, Kal kii, cp. Chi qi]

hiyd : cloister [Kal kiid, Skt]

hiyh : do [OM ki-, Kal kehe, cp. Tur kil-, Kyr kil-, OT *kil]

hiyl : violin [OM kighili handle]

hiyseh : blow [OM keyi-]

hodood : stomach [OM qotughad, pl. of *qotugha, cp. Man kodo crop]

hog : litter, waste [OM qog]

hoh : damage [OM qoki-]

hol : far [OM qola, cp. Man goro, Eve goro]

holboh : bind, connect [OM qolbu- unite < *qol- pair; see hos]

holdoh : be far [OM qoladu- < qola-; see hol]

holih : mix [OM qoli- < *qol- pair, cp. Kyr kosh- add, OT *kosh < *kol pair; see hos]

hondloy : buttock [OM qondalay < *qong, cp. Man kondiosu]

hongil : cave [OM qonggil, cp. Kyr üngkür, OT *üng pierce; see höndiy]

hongor : kind [OM qonggur]

honh : bell [OM qongqa]

honi : sheep zool [OM qonin, cp. Tur koyun, Kyr koy, Tuv hoy, OT *koni, Man honin]

honoh : spend the night, settle [OM qonu-, cp. Tur kon- stay, Kyr kon-, Tuv hon-, and Tur koy- put, Kyr koy-, OT *ko]

honshoor : snout [OM qonsiyar and qangsighar, cp. OT *kangur, Man kangsari nose-ridge]

honzhih : gain, profit [OM qondi- and qodi-; see hozhih]

hool : meal [OM qoghul; see hooloy]

hooloy : throat [OM qoghulay < *qoghu- hollow; see hooson]

hooson : empty [OM qoghusun < *qoghu- < *qophu- hollow, cp. Tur kovuk, Kyr koo, OT *kobi, Jap kubo cave]

hor : poison [OM qoura]

horhoy : worm zool [OM qorqay, cp. Tur kurt, Kyr kurt, OT *kurt]

hori : twenty num [OM qorin < *qoyorin < *qoyar-on, cp. Man orin; see hoyor]

horih : forbid [OM qori-, cp. Tur koru- guard, Kyr koru-, Tuv horu- forbid, OT *kori]

horoh : diminish [OM qoru-]

horoo : enclosure [OM qorighan and qoriyan < qori-; see horih]

horshoo : union [OM qorsi- unite]

hos : pair [OM qos, cp. Kyr kosh; see holih]

hoshin : humor [OM qosin]

hoshuu : beak [OM qosighun, cp. Kor k'o nose]

hot : town [OM qota corral, cp. Man hoton, Kor kos place]

hotgor : valley [OM qotagir]

hotsroh : leave behind [OM qotir-]

hovor : seldom [OM qobhur]

hoyno : later; to the north [OM qoyi rear]

hoyor : two num [OM qoyar < *qolir < *qol- pair, cp. Kit *kho two (Starikov 1982, 125); see holboh, hos]

hozhigdoh : lose [OM qodigda-]

hozhih : gain [OM qodi- and qondi-; see honzhih]

hozhim : later [OM qodim; see honoh]

hödlöh : move [OM ködel-, Kal ködelhe]

hödöö : land [OM ködeghe, Kal ködee]

hög : melody [OM kög, Kal kög, cp. Tuv hög joy, OT *kög, Chi]

höh : breast [OM kökün, Kal köken, cp. Tur göghüs, Kyr kökürök, OT *köküz, Man huhun, Eve ukun and hiken, Jap kokoro heart, Kog *kor (Itabashi 2003, 143)]

höh : blue [OM köke, Kal kökö, cp. Tur gök sky, Kyr kök sky, blue, OT *kök, Man kuku]

höhröh : laugh [OM kökri- < *kök-, Kal kökshihe, onom.]

höl : foot [OM köl, Kal köl]

höldöh : freeze [OM kölde- < *köl- cold, Kal köldehe freeze; see hüyten]

hölög : vehicle; boat [OM kölgen < köl, Kal kölgen; see höl]

höls : sweat [OM kölüsün, Kal kölsen]

hömsög : brow [OM kömüsge, Kal kömseke, cp. Man human]

höndiy : empty, hollow [OM köndey, Kal köndee, cp. Kyr köngdöy and öndür]

höndlön : across [OM köndelün, Kal köndöleng]

höngön : easy [OM *könggen, Kal künggen]

höö : soot [OM köghe, Kal köö, cp. Kyr köö]

hööh : chase [OM köghe-, Kal kööhe]

höörög : bellows [OM kögherge < köghe-, Kal köörög, cp. Tur körük, Kyr köörük, OT *köri, Man hujuku; see höös]

hööröh : swell, rise, excite [OM köghere- < köghe- < *köphe-, Kal köörhe, cp. Tur köpür-; see höös]

höös : foam [OM köghesün < köghe- swell < *köphe-, Kal köösen foam, cp. Tur köpük, Kyr köbhük, OT *köp swell, Kor kaphüm foam, Man kubsu- swell]

höröh : be cold [OM körü- < *köl- cold, Kal körhe be cold; see höldöh]

höröngö : leaven; capital [OM körüngge, Kal körengge, cp. Kyr körönggö, Jap hooji]

höröö : saw [OM köreghe < *kireghe < *kir-, Kal köree, cp. Tuv hiree, Kyr kerki adze, Jap kiri drill, awl; see hyargah]

hörs : soil, crust [OM körüsün, Kal körsen, cp. Tuv hörzün]

höshig : curtain [OM kösige, Kal köshge, cp. Kyr köshögö, Per kushk kiosk]

höshöö : column [OM kösiye, Kal köshee]

höshüür : lever [OM kösighür, Kal köshüür]

hösög : cart [OM köske]

hötlöh : lead [OM kötel-, Kal kötelhe]

hövch : string [OM köbhti, Kal köpchi]

hövöh : drift, float [OM köbhü-, Kal kövhe, cp. Tur köprü bridge, Kyr köpürö]

hövön : cotton wad [OM köbhüng, Kal köveng, cp. Tuv höveng, Man kubun]

hözör : card [OM *ködir, Kal közer]

hudag : well [OM qudugh, cp. Tur kuyu, Kyr kuduk, OT *kudugh]

hudal : false [OM qudal]

hudaldah : sell [OM qudald-]

hugalah : break [OM qugul-]

hulan : wild donkey zool [OM qula, cp. Tur kulan, Kyr kulan, OT *kulan, Man kulan]

hulgana : mouse zool [OM qulugana, cp. Kyr kish sable, OT *kish < *kil, Man ulhu squirrel, Eve uluki]

hulgay : theft [OM qulaghay and qulasun < *qula-]

huls : bamboo [OM qulusun reed]

hums : nail, claw [OM kimusun and qumusun]

hun : swan zool [OM qun]

hunar : clothing [OM qunar]

hundaga : cup [OM qundaga and quntaga]

hur : rain [OM qura]

huraah : assemble [OM qura- < *qur-, cp. Tur kur- arrange]

hurd : speed [OM qurdun fast]

hurga : lamb zool [OM qurigan, cp. Tur kuzu, Kyr kozu, OT *kozi, Man iren deer]

hurim : wedding [OM qurim assembly < *qur-, cp. Eve kurim; see huraah]

huritsah : covet [OM quriti-]

hurts : sharp, acute [OM qurti-, cp. Kyr kurch]

huruu : finger anat [OM qurughun, cp. Kor kalak]

hus : birch bot [OM qusun, cp. Man isi larch, Jap kusu camphor tree]

husah : shave [OM qusu-]

hush : cedar bot [OM qusi, cp. Man usiha nut, Eve usikta oak, Jap kashi]

hushga : walnut bot

hutag : holiness [OM qutug, cp. Tur kut luck, Eve kutu]

hutga : knife [OM utuga < *utu-, Kal utha]

hutgah : mix [OM qudqu-, cp. Tur kat- add]

huts : buck, ram zool [OM qutia, cp. Tur koc, OT *koch, Man kuca, Eve kucha]

hutsah : bark [OM quti-]

huuchin : old [OM qaghutin]

huuchir : string instrument [Chi hu-jia]

huudas : page [OM qaghu-dasun bark; see huulah]

huulah : peel [OM qaghu-l- < *qaphu-, cp. Tur kabuk bark, Kyr kabhik, OT *kabagha]

huuli : law [Chi]

huur : string instrument [OM qughur, cp. OT *kopuz, Jap koto, Chi hu-cin]

huurah : deceive [OM qaur-]

huuray : dry [OM qaghuray]

huuray : file [OM qaghuray]

huurs : nit zool [OM kighursun and ga(gh)ursun, cp. OT *kauz husk]

huvaah : share [OM qubhiya-, Kal hovaaha]

huvin : bucket [OM qubing, cp. Tur kova]

huvirah : change [OM qubhira- moult, Kal hövrehe]

huvtsas : clothing [OM qubhtiyasun, Kal hoptsa]

huy : sheath [OM qui]

huyag : armor [OM quyag]

huzhir : salty soil [OM qudir, cp. Man hudiri]

hüch : fight [OM küti force, cp. Tur güc, Kyr küch, OT *küch]

hüder : muskrat zool [OM küderi, cp. Jap kitsune fox]

hüher : sulfur [OM *küker, cp. Tur kükürt, Kyr kükürt, Per gugird]

hüleeh : wait, receive [OM küliye-]

hüleh : bind [OM küli-]

hümüüs : people [OM kümün man]

hün : man [OM küngün]

hünd : heavy [OM kündü, cp. Tuv hündü honor, respect, Chi kungde merit]

hüns : daily food [OM künesün]

hüree : cloister [OM küriyen enclosure, cp. Tuv hüree church]

hüreh : reach [OM kür-]

hürel : bronze [OM kürel and küler, cp. Kor kuro copper]

hüren : brown [OM küren, cp. Kyr küröng, OT *küreng, and Tur güz autumn, Kyr küz, OT *küz < *kür]

hürgen : in-law [OM kürgen < kür, cp. OT *köregen; see bergen]

hürhree : waterfall [OM kürkire- roar, cp. OT *köksö]

hürmen : basalt [OM kürmen earth spirit, Kal kürmen]

hürz : shovel [OM kürdi < *kür-, cp. Tur kürek, Kyr kürök, OT *küre]

hüseh : wish [OM küse-, cp. OT *küse]

hüü : son, boy [OM keü]

hüüdiy : bag [Kal küüdee, Chi]

hüühen : girl [OM keükün]

hüür : corpse [OM kür, Kyr kör grave, Per gur]

hüys : navel anat [OM küisün < küi, Kal kiisen, cp. Kyr kindik, OT *kin-]

hüyten : cold [OM küyitün < *kölitün < *köl-, Kal kiiten; see höldöh, höröh]

hüzüü : neck [OM küdiüghü]

hyadah : destroy [OM kidu- and kita-, Kal kudha, cp. Tur kiy- hash, cut apart, Kyr kiy-, OT *kiy]

hyalayh : squint [OM kiluyi-, Kal kuliiha, cp. Kyr kiysh- bend, OT *kish- < *kil]

hyalbar : easy [OM kilbar, Kal kilwer]

hyalgas : horsehair [OM kilgasun < *kil-, Kal kilghasen, cp. Tur kil hair, Kyr kil, OT *kil, Kor kalki mane]

hyamd : cheap [OM kimda, Kal kimde]

hyanah : supervise [OM kina-, Kal kinha]

hyar : ridge [OM kira, Kal kire, cp. Kyr kir, Tur kir country, wilderness, OT *kir]

hyaram : boiled milk with water [OM kiram and kimur, cp. Tur kimiz koumis, Kyr kimiz, OT *kimiz, Jap kamosu brew]

hyargah : shear [OM kirga- < *kir-, Kal kirvehe, cp. Tur kirk-, Kyr kirk-, OT *kir, Man giri-, Eve gir-, Jap kiru, Kor k'al knife]

hyaruu : hoarfrost [OM kiraghu, Kal kiruu, cp. Tur kiraghi, Kyr kiroo, OT *kiraghu]

hyaruul : pheasant zool [OM kirghul, cp. Kyr kirgool]

hyasaan : anger [OM kisagha, Kal kisaan, cp. Tur kisa short, Kyr kis- press, OT *kis]

hyarvas : burnt hair [OM kirbhusun, Kal kirvsen]

hyatad : Chi [OM kitad, pl. of *Kit, Kal kited]

hyazgaar : border [OM kidigar, cp. Tur kiyi shore, OT *kidigh]

I

icheh : be ashamed [OM itie- < *pitie-]

id : craft [OM ide, cp. Skt iddhi]

ih : big [OM *ike < *pike, Don fugie, cp. Tur eghit- bring up, OT *igid]

iher : twin [OM ikire, cp. Tur ikiz, OT *ikir, Man ikiri]

ilbe : trick, deceit [cp. OT *yilbi]

ilbees : bait [OM ilbeghüsün]

ilbeh : caress [OM ili-, cp. Man ile- lick]

ild : sword [OM ildü, SKor il-do moon-sword]

ilgeeh : send [OM ilege- < ile-, cp. Tur ilet- hand over, Eve ilbe- drive]

ilzhig : donkey zool [OM eldigen, cp. Tuv elchigen, Tur esek, Kyr eshek]

im : sign

ineeh : laugh [OM ineghe- < *pineghe-, Dag hinee-, cp. Eve inye-]

inge : female camel zool [OM inggen, cp. Kyr inggen, Man ingge]

inzhir : fig bot [cp. Tur incir, Kyr anzhir, Per anjir]

ir : ninety num [OM iren < *ir(s)ün-on; see yes]

ir : blade [OM ir < *pir, Dag hir, cp. Tur iz trace, OT *ir, Man irun edge]

ireg : whether zool [OM irge, cp. Kyr irik, Man irge]

ireh : come [cp. Tur er- reach, OT *er-]

irves : leopard zool [OM irbhis, cp. Kyr ilbhirs snow leopard and zholbhors tiger, OT *yolbars; see bars]

ish : grip, handle [OM esi < *pesi, Dag heshi, cp. Man fesin, Eve hesin]

ish : origin [OM esin < *pesin mother, Kal eshen origin, cp. Tur eski old, OT *eski, Jap heso navel]

ishig : kid zool [cp. Tur keci goat, Kyr echki, Tuv öchkü, OT *ecqe]

itelgü : gyrfalcon zool [cp. Kyr itelgi, Man itulhen]

itgeh : hope [OM itege-, cp. Tuv ideg]

L

laa : candle [Chi la]

laaz : box, can

lag : mud [cp. Jap nukaru smear]

lam : lama [Tib bla-ma, Chi lama]

lats : lacquer [Tib la-tza, Chi la]

lav : wax [OM labh, Tib la-ba, Chi la]

lembe : flute [Tib gling-bu]

lahgva : Wednesday [Tib lhag-pa Mercury]

linhua : lotus bot [Chi lian-hua]

liyr : pear bot [Chi li]

lonh : bottle [OM longqu, Chi]

lugshih : beat, knock [OM lugsi-]

luu : dragon [Tib klu]

luus : mule [Chi luoji]

luuvan : carrot bot [Tib la-p'ug, Chi luo-bo radish]

luuzhin : compass [Chi]

M

maalinga : flax bot [Chi ma]

maanag : dumb [OM meneg]

maazhin : varnish [Chi]

magad : certain [OM magad]

maglay : forehead anat [OM manglay and mangnay, cp. Kyr mangday, OT *manglay, Tur beyin brain, Kyr mee, OT *bengi; see eh]

magtah : praise [OM magta-, cp. Kyr makta-, OT *makh-]

mah : flesh [OM miqan, cp. Kyrghyz myqyn thigh]

mahbod : element [Skt mahabhuta]

mahir : bent [OM maki- bend]

mal : livestock [Tur mal, Kyr mal, Ara mal]

malgay : cap [OM malagay, Kal mahlaa, OT *malakay]

maltah : demolish [OM malta- bury]

manah : guard [OM mana-]

manarah : climb [OM manara-]

manay : our ppron [OM manay]

mandah : bloom [OM mandu-]

mandal : circle [Skt mandala]

manduulah : rise [OM mandala-]

manguu : stupid [OM mungqaghu < *mung-, Kal monghuu; see munah]

manzh : Man [OM mandi]

maral : doe zool [OM maral]

margaash : tomorrow [OM margasi]

margad : emerald [Gre smaragdos]

margah : dispute [OM marga- bet]

martah : forget [OM marta- < *umarta-]

marzah : grin [OM mardi-]

mash : very [OM masi, cp. Jap masu increase]

mashin : car [Russian mashina]

maslo : butter [Russian maslo]

matah : bend [OM masi, cp. Man mita-, Jap motoru contradict]

may : bonfire [cp. Jap maki firewood]

mayhan : tent [OM mayiqan, Chi]

mazaalay : bear zool

mech : monkey [OM meti; see bich]

medeh : know [cp. Man medige news, Eve mede- feel]

megzh : hog zool [OM megedin, cp. Man mehe sow]

meh : deceit [OM meke]

melhiy : frog zool [OM meleqei and meneqei < *melq-, cp. Man meihe snake; see mölhöh]

mendleh : greet [OM mendüle- < mendü healthy]

mergen : clever, wise [OM mergen sharpshooter, hunter, cp. Man mergen]

meriyh : make efforts [OM meriye-]

mes : weapon [OM mese sword]

met : as, like [OM metü, cp. Kyr bet face]

miniy : my ppron [cp. Kyr meniy]

minzh : beaver zool [OM mindi, cp. Jap mujina badger]

misheeh : smile [OM misiye-]

mod : tree [OM modun, cp. Man moo, Eve moo, Chi mu]

mogoy : snake zool [cp. Kit *mogho (Chinggeltei 2002, 107; Vovin 2004, 121)]

mohoo : blunt [OM moqay, cp. Kyr moko- be blunt]

molor : topase [OM molur < bolur crystal; see bolor]

mordoh : depart [OM morda- < *mor-; see mori]

mori : horse zool [OM morin < *mor-, Kal mörn, cp. Man morin, Eve murin, Kit *mori (Chinggeltei 2002, 107; Vovin 2004, 121), Kor mal, Chi ma, Jap u-ma, Kog *meru colt (Itabashi 2003, 146)]

moyl : sour cherry [OM moyil, cp. Kyr moyul, Man mojoro]

möch : extremity [OM möti]

möchir : branch [OM mötir]

möd : immediate

möhöh : perish [OM mökü broken, cp. Jap mukashi old times]

mölhöh : creep [OM mölqü- < *melq-, cp. Man micu-]

möltlöh : twist [OM möltüre-, cp. Jap mojiru]

mölzhih : exploit [OM möldi- gnaw]

mön : also [OM mön self, cp. Tur bu this, OT *bu, Eve men self, Jap mono thing]

möndöl : young marmot zool [OM möndele, cp. Eve munnukan hare, Jap momonga flying squirrel]

möndör : hail [OM möndür < *möl-dür, cp. Kyr möndür; see mös]

möngö : silver, money [OM mönggün, cp. Tuv mönggün, Man menggun, Eve mengun]

mönh : eternal [OM möngke < *mengkü, Chi wan-ku]

möög : mushroom [cp. Tuv möögü, Chi mogu]

möör : hoop [OM mögher]

mööröh : howl [OM möghüre- and *böghüre- and büngsi-, cp. Tur böghür-, Kyr möörö-, OT *böghür-, *böngür-]

mör : track [OM mör, cp. Jap michi road, Kor molda follow]

mör : river [OM mörön, cp. Kit *mörə (mu-li, Doerfer 1992, 48), Kog *mey river, water < *mer (Itabashi 2003, 146-47), Man muke water, Eve muu, Kor mul, Jap mizu]

mör : shoulder [OM möri and mörün, cp. Man meiren, Eve mire]

möröödöh : long for [OM mörüghed-]

mörs : cartilage [OM möghersün and böghersün, cp. Tur boynuz horn, Kyr müyüz, OT *müghüz]

mös : ice [OM mö(l)sün < *möl, cp. Tur buz, Kyr muz, OT *mur]

muhar : hornless [OM *muqur; see mohoo]

muhrih : roll [OM muqur- < *muq-, cp. Jap maku]

muna : mallet [cp. Eve monggi- knead, Jap momu rub, Kor manchida caress]

munah : be dazed [OM munu- be dumb < *mung-, cp. Tur bön stupid, dumb, OT *möng, Eve mongnon, Chi meng dazed]

mundah : be insufficient [cp. Jap mazui poor]

muruy : crooked [cp. Man murihan curve, Eve muru- round]

mushgih : twist [OM musigi-, Kal mushkuu twisted]

muu : bad [OM maghu]

muzh : region [cp. OT *budun nation, Kor modu all and madang courtyard, Jap machi street, Chi]

myagmar : Tuesday [Tib mig-dmar Mars]

myanga : thousand num [OM minggan, cp. Tur bin, Kyr ming, OT *müng, Man minggan]



N

naadah : play [OM naghad-]

naah : stick [OM nagh- < *naph-, cp. Tur yapis-, Man lifa- smear, Jap nebai sticky]

naash : this side [OM naghasi < nagha]

nachin : falcon zool [OM natin < *latin, cp. OT *lacin]

nad : me ppron [cp. Kor nal]

nagats : relative [cp. Tib snag]

nagvan : inkpot [Tib snag-bum]

nahiyh : bend [OM naki-]

nal : ruby [cp. Kyr laal, Tib nal, Per lal]

nam : low, quiet [OM nam]

nam : party

namag : swamp [OM namug < *nam-, cp. Eve laamu sea, Tib nem swamp, Jap nami wave and numa swamp, Kor nop'; see nuur]

namar : autumn [OM namur]

namtar : biography [cp. Tuv namtar, Tib rnam-thar]

nar : sun [OM naran, cp. Tur yaz summer, Kyr zhaz, OT *yaz < *nyar, Kit *nyär (nieh-la, nieh-i-erh) day (Doerfer 1992, 48; Chinggeltei 2002, 107), Kor yarüm < *nyar- summer, Chi chi sun (Mandarin ri, dial. yat) SJap nichi day, SKor nal]

nariyn : fine [OM narin]

nars : fir, pine bot [OM narasun]

nas : age [OM na(l)sun, cp. Tur yas, Kyr zhash, OT yash < *nyal, Jap nasu give birth]

navch : leaf [OM namti and nabhti < *nabh-, Kal napchi, cp. Tur yaprak, OT *yapurghak < *nyap-, Kor iph < *niph, Jap na vegetable]

navtar : low [cp. Eve nieptekun]

naya : eighty num [OM nayan < *nayiman-on; see naym]

naydah : hope [OM nayida- and nayila- be glad < nay friendliness]

naygah : swing [OM nayigu-, cp. OT *yayka-]

naym : eight num [OM nayiman]

naymaa : commerce

naymalzh : crab zool

nayr : feast [OM nayir; see nayrah]

nayrah : mingle [OM nayira- agree, cp. Tur yara fit, Kyr zhar beloved, OT *yara < *nyara-, Man nara- love]

nayz : friend [OM nayidi < nay friendliness]

neeh : open [OM neghe-, cp. Man nei-, Eve niw-, Kor yolda < *nil-]

neg : one num [OM nigen, Dag niken]

neheh : weave [OM neke-, cp. Jap nuki woof]

neheh : request [OM neke-, cp. Man lehe- claim, Jap negau ask]

neheh : chase [OM neke-, cp. Jap nigeru run]

nemeh : add [OM neme-, cp. Man neme-]

nemneh : cover [OM nemne-]

nen : very [OM neng]

ner : name [OM nere, cp. Kor irüm]

nereh : burn [OM nere-]

ners : blueberry bot [OM nersün]

netreh : deteriorate [OM netere-, cp. Tur yit- be lost, Tuv chid-, OT *yit, Man nitan weak]

nevt : through [OM nebhte and nemte, Kal nepte]

nimbeg : lemon bot [Skt nimbuka]

nimgen : thin [OM nimagun < *nom-, cp. Eve nemkuun; see nomhon]

niseh : fly [OM nise-]

niyt : together [OM niye-; see neg]

nogoo : grass bot [OM nogugha]

nogoon : green [OM nogughan, cp. Tuv nogaan, Man niohon greenish; see nogoo]

nogt : halter [OM nogtu, cp. Kyr nokto]

nohoy : dog zool [OM noqay, cp. Kit *nyoghe, *nyöghe (nieh-ho) (Doerfer 1992, 48) = *nokhi  (Chinggeltei 2002, 107; Vovin 2004, 121)]

nom : book [cp. Tuv nom, Gre nomos law]

nomhon : quiet [OM nomuqan and nomughan < nom peacefulness, cp. Tur yumusak soft, Kyr zhumshak, OT *yum < *nyum, Eve nyemume, Jap yawai]

nooluur : down, plume [OM noghulur < *noghu- and *nugha-, Kal nöölr; see noos]

noos : hair [OM nughasun and nunngasun < *nugha- and nunnga, cp. Eve innga- wool, Man nunngari down, Tur yün wool, Kyr zhün, OT yüng < *nyüng]

noroh : get wet [OM nor-]

notsoh : attack, fight with [OM noti-]

noyon : master [Chi lao-ye old father]

noyr : sleep [OM noyir, Kal nöör, cp. Jap ne]

noyton : wet [OM noyitun < *noritun < nor-; see noroh]

nögöö : other [see neg]

nöhöh : compensate [OM nökü- repair]

nöhör : mate [OM nökür, cp. Man neku sister, Per noukar servant]

nölöö : influence [OM nölüghe heat and nüle flame, cp. Eve nul- kindle]

nömröh : cover [cp. Man nemerhen coat]

nööh : hide [OM nüghe-]

nudarga : fist [OM nidurga, cp. Tur yumruk, Kyr zhuduruk, OT yudruq < *nyudruq, Man nujan, Jap nigiru grasp]

nuga : meadow [OM nigu]

nugalah : bend [OM nigula- < nigu, cp. Man iku- fold; see nuga]

nugas : duck [OM nugusun, cp. Man niyehe, Eve niki]

nugas : spinal cartilage [OM nigu(r)sun, cp. Man ikursun]

nuhah : knead [OM nuqu- and niqu-, cp. Man niyohu- and nikca- destroy]

nulimdas : spittle [OM nilmudasun and nilbudasun, Kal nülmüdesn]

nulims : tear [OM nilmusun and nilbusun < *nil-, cp. Tur yas, Kyr zhash, OT *nyal, Eve inyamu-]

num : bow [OM numun, cp. Man nu]

nuntaglah : crush

nurah : fall [OM nura-, cp. Tib nur-ba abyss]

nurma : ember [OM nurma]

nuruu : ridge [OM nirughun back]

nus : snot [OM ni(ya)sun, cp. Man niyaki]

nutag : land [OM nutug and nitug]

nuuh : hide [OM nighu-]

nuur : lake [OM naghur < *namur < *nam-; see namag]

nüd : eye anat [OM nidün, cp. Kor nun]

nüh : hole [OM nüken, cp. Jap nuku pierce]

nütsgen : naked [OM nitigen]

nüüh : wander [OM neghü-, cp. Man neo-, Eve ngene- go]

nüür : face [OM nighur]

nüürs : coal [OM neghüresün, cp. Man nemu coal mine, Kor ne smoke]

nyadlah : slaughter [OM nitula-]

nyagt : dense [OM nigta, cp. OT *yigi, Eve luku]

nyalganah : be sticky [OM nilgana- < nila-, cp. Tur ilik bone marrow, Man lala gruel, Jap nori paste, starch]

nyalh : firstborn [OM nilqa tender, cp. Eve nelki spring, Jap naru bear fruit]

nyam : Sunday [Tib nyima sun]

nyaray : firstborn [OM niray tender, cp. Man niyarhun fresh]

O

och : spark [OM oti < *poti, cp. Tur ot fire and ocak hearth, Kyr ot fire and ochok hearth, Eve hoosin lightning, Kor pül fire, Jap ho, OJ po]

ochih : go there [cp. Kyr öt- pass, Jap utsuru move]

od : star [OM odun < *podun, Dag hod, Mgr foodi, cp. Eve osikta, Kor pyool, Jap hoshi, OJ posi]

odoh : depart [OM odu-]

odon : order

odoo : now [OM odua and edüghe < *e-; see en]

ogotno : mouse zool [OM ogutana]

ogshih : rise

ogt : completely [OM ogutu]

ogtloh : cut off [OM ogtal- and ogtir-]

ogtorguy : heaven [OM ogtarguy]

ohin : girl [OM okin, cp. Man uki female and uhen daughter-in-law]

ohor : short [OM oqur < *poqur, cp. Man foholon]

olbog : carpet [OM olbug cushion < *ol-, cp. Tur esik threshold, Kyr eshik door, Tuv ezhik, OT *eshik < *el-]

olgoy : intestine [OM olugay]

oloh : find [OM ol-]

olom : ford [OM olum]

olon : much [OM olan < *polan]

ols : hemp; cord [OM olusun, cp. Man olo]

olz : fund [OM oldi < *ol-; see oloh]

on : year [OM on < *pon, Dag hon, cp. Man fon time, Kor pom springtime, Jap haru, OJ paru, Kit *p'o time (as in hsia-li-p'o invitation-time, Doerfer 1992, 48; Chinggeltei 2002, 107)]

ondoo : strange [OM ondu other, cp. Tur o he, Tuv ol, Man uba this, Eve hungtu- other]

ongots : vessel [OM ongguti < *ongg-; see ongoyh]

ongoyh : open [OM onggayi- < ongga hole < *ongg- hollowed out, cp. Man unggin hole]

onis : lock, mechanism [OM onisun]

onisgo : riddle [OM onisqa]

onogdoh : divide

onoh : hit [OM onu- and no-, cp. Kyr ong right]

onol : theory

onoo : wrestler

onts : special [OM ongti]

oo : powder [OM ogha < *opha, cp. Kyr upa, Man ufa flour]

ooch : gulp [OM oghuti]

oono : antelope zool [OM *oghuna, cp. Man onon]

oosor : cord [OM oghusur]

or : trace [OM oram < *poram, cp. OT *oruq]

or : bed [OM orun, cp. Tuv orun, OT *orun; see oron]

orchih : turn, roll [OM orti- < *por-, Don horo-, Mgr furoo-, cp. Man foro-, Eve horol-]

orchuulah : translate [OM ortighul- < orti-, cp. Tuv ochul-; see orchih]

ord : army camp [cp. Tur ordu army; see aral]

ordon : palace

orgil : top [OM orgil < *por; see oroy]

orgoh : flee [OM orgu- < *oru-]

orhih : throw [OM orki-]

orloh : replace [OM orula- < orun; see oron]

oroh : enter [OM oru-]

oroldoh : try

oroltsoh : participate

oron : place [OM orun < *porun, cp. Kyr orun]

oros : Russian [OM orus, cp. Kyr orus, OT *orus, Man oros, Rus Rus]

oroy : top [OM oray < *por, cp. Man foron]

oroy : late, evening [OM oray dusk]

orshih : be [OM orusi- < oru-; see oroh]

osgor : crack [OM osqur, cp. Man wasiha and oshoho claw, Eve osikta]

osol : failure [OM osal defective, cp. Kyr osol]

otgon : junior [OM odqan < *otgan < *ot; see och]

otor : pasture [OM otar hunting ground]

ovog : name

ovoo : heap [OM obhugha]

ovor : look [OM obhur, cp. Tuv ovur illustration]

oy : talent [OM oy intellect, cp. Tur oy opinion, Kyr oylo- think]

oy : forest [OM oy < *poy, Don hoy, cp. Kyr oy valley]

oy : anniversary [OM oy year, cp. Kit ai (Chinggeltei 2002, 107)]

oylgoh : understand [OM oyul- < oy; see oy]

oyms : stocking [OM oyimasun < *poyma, cp. Man fomotsi, from Tib]

oyoh : bind, sew [see uyah]

oyr : near [OM oyir]

oyuun : intellect [OM oyun < oy; see oy]

Ö

öchigdör : yesterday [OM ötigedür; see ötsögdör]

öchüühen : a bit, small, few [OM *ötighüken and utighan and *(ü)tiyöghen; see tsöön]

öd : feather [OM ödün, Don hodun, Mgr foodi]

ödiy : not yet [OM edüy]

ödöh : urge [OM edü-]

ödör : day [OM edür]

öglöö : morning [OM öglüghe]

ögöh : give [OM ög-]

ögsöh : climb [OM ög-, cp. Tur yüksek high]

ögzög : buttock [OM ögezeg < *pögezeg]

öh : give [OM ög-; see ögöh]

ölgöh : hang [OM ölgü- and elgü-, cp. Kyr il-, OT *il]

ölhöh : smoothen [OM *ölke- and öghele-]

ölön : hungry [OM ölün < *öl-, cp. Tur öl- die, Kyr öl-, OT *öl]

ömch : property [OM önti and ömti < öbh, cp. Kyr önchü; see öv]

ömd : trousers [OM emüdün < *emü-; see ömsöh]

ömnö : front [OM emüne and ebhüne < *ebhü-, cp. Man emu one, Eve umun; see övör]

ömröh : get loose [OM emüri- pull out]

ömsöh : dress [OM emüs- < *emü-]

ön : abundance [OM öng, cp. Jap ogoru live in luxury, or < *pöng, cp. SKor p'ung]

önchin : orphan [OM önütin]

öndög : egg [OM öndegen < *pön-; see önör]

öndör : high [OM öndür < *pön-, Dag hundur; see önör]

öngö : complexion [OM öngge, cp. Tur ön, Kyr öng, OT *öng, Jap omote face]

öngöröh : pass [OM önggere-]

önö : far [OM öni]

önöö : this [OM enöghe < *en-; see en]

önöödör : today [OM enöghe edür; see önöö, ödör]

önör : fertile [OM önür <*pön-, cp. OT *ön- grow]

öntsög : corner [OM öntig, cp. Eve onggan]

önzhih : stay [OM öndi-]

önzhih : be fertile [OM öndi- < *pön-; see önör]

ööd : upwards [OM öghöde < öghö < ög-, cp. Kyr öydö, Man wesihun, Eve ugi; see ögsöh]

ööh : fat [OM öghökün < *pöghekün, Don fugun]

öölöh : smoothen, plane [OM öghöle-, cp. Man folo- carve]

öör : other [OM ögheri]

öösh : net [OM *eghösi and üghesi, cp. Man veshen]

ör : debt [OM örin]

ör : sympathy [OM örü inside, cp. Tur öz essence, Kyr öz, OT *öz < *ör, Eve ur belly]

örgöh : raise [OM örgü- < *pör-, cp. Tuv örü up, OT *ör, and Tur hörgüc hump, OT *örkü]

örgöl : sacrifice [OM ergül, cp. Tuv örgül, Tur alkis applause, Kyr alkoo blessing, OT *alka]

örgön : wide [OM örgen]

örgöö : palace [OM ergüghe < örgü-; see örgöh]

örh : door [OM örke smoke-hole, cp. Man uce door, Eve urke]

örnö : west [cp. Tur ördek duck]

örnüüleh : expand, develop

öröh : arrange [OM öre-]

öröm : skin, cream [OM örüme < *örü top, cp. Man oromu cream]

öröm : drill [OM erüm]

öröö : room [OM erüghe, cp. Tuv öreel]

örööl : half [OM erüghel]

örövtöh : file [OM erübhte- and *erümte-, Kal öröptihe; see öröm]

örtög : value [cp. Tuv örtek]

örtöö : post station [OM örteghe < *pört-, cp. Tur ört- cover, OT *ört]

ös : revenge [OM ös, cp. Tur öc, Kyr öch, Man usa- be sad, Jap osoru fear, or < *pös, cp. Man fuce- be an enemy]

ösgiy : heel [OM öskey and *öksey, cp. Tur ökce]

ösöh : grow [OM ösü- < *pösü-, cp. Kyr ös-, OT *ös-, Man fuse-]

öt : maggot [OM ötün]

ötlöh : be old [OM ötel- < *öte-, cp. Eve uteleptü old, Jap otoroeru wane]

ötög : bear zool [OM ötegü < *öte- old man; see ötlöh]

ötög : dung [OM ötüg]

ötsögdör : yesterday [OM ötigedür; see öchigdör]

öv : heritage [ÖM öbh, Chi]

övchin : illness [OM ebhetin < *ebhedin < *ebhed-; see övdöh]

övdög : knee [OM ebhüdüg < *ebh-; see evheh]

övdöh : ache, be ill [OM ebhed-; see övchin]

övgön : old man [OM ebhügen < *ebh-; see evheh and bergen]

övög : grandfather [OM ebhüge < *ebh-, cp. Kit *ebüge (i-pu-ko) old man (Doerfer 1992, 47); see evheh]

övöl : winter [OM ebhül, cp. Kit *u'ul (Doerfer 1992, 49; Chinggeltei 2002, 107)]

övöölzh : hoopoe [OM *ebhö(ghe)ldin or *ebhög < *pöbh(ögh)]

övör : front, breast; south [OM *ebhür < *pebh- front, cp. Eve evte lung and evtüle rib]

övs : grass, hay [OM ebhesün, cp. Man afa stalk]

P

piu : ticket [Chi piao]

puuzhin : rocket [Chi]

pürev : Thursday [Tib phurbu Jupiter]

pyanz : record [Chi pian-ji tablet]

R

ruu : direction



S

saad : obstacle [OM saghad < sagha-]

saah : milk [OM sagha-, cp. Tur sagh-, Kyr saa-, OT *sagh-]

saahalt : neighbor [OM saghaqalta]

sags : basket [OM sagsu]

sahal : beard [OM saqal, cp. Tur sakal, Kyr sakal, OT *sakal]

sahih : protect [OM saki-, cp. Tur sakla- hide, Kyr sakta- protect, OT *saq-]

sal : raft [cp. Tur sal]

salah : separate [OM salu-]

salay : sperm anat [see salah]

salhi : wind [OM salkin, cp. Kyr salkin cool]

sam : ridge [Per sam]

sambaa : cleverness [OM sambagha, cp. Jap shibaraku for a short time, Tib]

sambar : board [OM sambara]

samnah : comb [OM samna-]

sampin : abacus [Chi suan-pan]

san : treasury [OM sang, Chi]

sanah : remember [cp. Tur san- consider, Kyr sana-, Man sa- know, Eve saa-, Chi suan reckon]

sandal : chair [cp. Tuv sanday, Tur sandalye, Per sandali]

sansar : space [Skt samsara]

sanzhih : hang down [OM sandi-]

sar : moon [cp. Kit *sär(ə) (sai-i-erh) (Doerfer 1992, 48; Chinggeltei 2002, 107)]

saraalzh : lattice [OM saraghaldi, cp. Kor sal, Man sherin visor]

saravch : roof, screen [OM sarabhti, Kal sarapchi; see sar]

sarimsag : garlic bot [cp. Tur sarmisak, OT *sarimsak]

sarlag : yak zool [OM sarlug, cp. Tuv sarlik, OT *sarlik]

sarnay : rose bot

sav : vessel [OM sabha]

savan : soap [OM sabhun, cp. Tur sabun, Ara sabun, French savon, Italian sapone]

savar : claw [OM sabhur]

savh : chopstick [OM sabhqa, cp. Man sabqa]

savhi : leather [cp. Tur sahtiyan]

saya : million [Tib sa-ya]

saya : recently [OM saya < *say new, cp. Kor sae]

sayd : minister

sayn : good [cp. Tur sagh right, Man sain good, Kit *she (Doerfer 1992, 48)]

sedeh : think out [OM sedü-]

sedreh : inflame

seer : backbone anat [OM segher, cp. OT *sengir ridge, Man seire backbone]

seg : cadaver

segs : basket [Chi]

segsreh : shake [OM segseri-]

sehee : intellect [OM sekeghe]

seleh : change [OM selü-]

selem : sword [OM seleme, cp. Man sele iron, Eve sele]

selüür : oar [OM selighür < selbighür, cp. Jap saji spoon]

sem : secret [OM sem still]

semreh : detach [OM semer-]

senzh : handle [OM sendi, Chi]

seree : fork [OM sereghe]

sereh : wake [OM sere-, cp. Tur sez- feel, Kyr sez-, OT *ser-, Man sere-, Jap shiru know]

serh : buck zool [OM serke]

serüühen : cool [OM serighün, cp. Tur serin]

servee : crest, fin [OM serbheghe < *sir-, cp. Tur sirt back, OT *sir-; see shirheg]

setgel : core, soul

setgüül : magazine

sev : defect [OM sebh]

sevh : freckle [OM sebheki < sebh, cp. Kyr sepkil, OT *sebkil; see sev]

sezhüür : rim

shaa : net, veil [Chi]

shaah : drive in, beat in [OM sigha-, cp. Tur sigh- get into, OT *sigh-]

shaantag : wedge [OM sighanchag, cp. OT *sighis]

shaar : used tea-leaves [OM sighar remains]

shaardah : further

shaazan : china [OM sighadiyung, Chi]

shaazgay : magpie [OM si(gha)digay]

shagay : knuckle anat [OM sigay, cp. Kyr söök bone, OT *sünge, Jap sune shin]

shaglaah : prove

shagnah : award

shahah : press [OM siqa-, cp. Tur sik-]

shal : floor [OM sila, Tib]

shaldan : naked [OM sildang, cp. Kyr zhilangach from zhilang snake, Tur yilan snake, Tuv chilan (OT *yilang), Tuv chanagash naked (OT *yalang)]

shaltag : cause, pretext [OM siltag]

shamdah : be diligent [OM simda- hurry]

shamlah : roll up [OM simala- or simara-]

shanaa : cheekbone anat [OM sinagha temple, cp. Tur yanak cheek, Kyr zhaak jaw, Man shan ear, Eve sien]

shanaga : ladle [OM sinaga]

shanalah : suffer [OM sinala-, cp. Eve singni- be sorry, Man singgira- do wrong, Jap shinogu endure]

shandastay : continuously

shanz : a musical instrument

shar : yellow [OM sira, cp. Tur sari, Kyr sari, Man shara- whiten, Tib ser yellow]

sharah : fry [OM sira-]

sharh : wound [OM sirqa, cp. Jap soru shave]

shashin : religion [Skt shasana prescription]

shat : step [OM situ stair, cp. Kyr shati, OT *shati, Kor satari ladder]

shatah : burn [OM sita-]

shatar : chess [cp. Tur satranc, Per shatrang, Skt caturanga]

shavar : clay [OM sibhar]

shavi : pupil [Tib]

shees : urine [cp. Tur sidik, Man sike urine, site- urinate]

shideh : throw

shig : as

shigdeh : get stuck [OM siged- < sig stuck]

shil : glass [OM silen, cp. Tuv shil, Tib shel, Tur sis- blow up, OT *shish-]

shil : ridge; nape [OM sili, cp. Tabgach *shilu (shih-lou) high (Doerfer 1992, 46)]

shilbe : buttonhole [OM silbi]

shilbe : shin, calf [OM silbi]

shileh : choose [OM sili-, cp. Tur sina-, Eve sinma-]

shilgeeh : shake [OM silge-, cp. Tur silk-, Kyr silk-, Eve silgin-]

shilüüs : lynx zool [OM sileghüsün, cp. Kyr sülöösün, Man silun]

shilzhih : move, pass over [OM sildi-]

shim : sap [OM sime, cp. Man simen]

shine : new [OM sine, cp. Chi hsin, Kit *shen (Chinggeltei 2002, 107), Kog *su (Itabashi 2003, 151), Pae *sa (Li 1977, 41)]

shingeh : ooze in [OM singge-, cp. Tur sin- penetrate, Kyr sing- be absorbed, OT *sing-, Eve sungta deep, Jap shizumu sink]

shingen : liquid [OM singgen, Tib sing]

shinzh : omen [OM sindi mark, cp. OT *sin figure, Chi]

shinzhleh : examine, research [OM sindile- < sindi; see shinzh]

shir : hide, leather [OM siri]

shiree : table [OM sireghen]

shirh : louse zool [OM sirke, cp. Tur sirke nit, Kyr sirke]

shirheg : thread; piece [OM sirkeg < *sir-, cp. Man sirge; see servee]

shirteh : stare [OM sirte-]

shirüün : rough [OM sirüghü, Kal shürüün]

shiver : sweat [OM sibheri]

shiver : drizzle [OM sibhe- ooze < *sir-bh-]

shivneh : whisper [OM sibh-, cp. Kyr shibhir-, Tuv simir-]

shivshig : shame [OM sibhsi- slander, cp. Jap shiiru]

shiydeh : determine [OM sighid-]

shiyr : leg [OM sighire]

shog : joke [cp. Per shuh joker]

shohoy : lime, chalk [Chi shi-hui]

shoo : cube [OM sighu]

shoodvorloh : be unable

shor : skewer [OM siru]

shorgoolzh : ant zool [OM sirguldin]

shoroo : dust, soil [OM sirugha, cp. Eve sirugi sand, Kog *sork dust (Itabashi 2003, 151)]

shosh : bean bot [OM sisi]

shöl : broth, soup [OM silün, cp. Man sile, Eve sile]

shönö : night [OM söni <* sön-, Kal söö, cp. Kit sunj (Chinggeltai 2002, 107); see sönöh]

shörmös : sinew anat [OM sirmüsün and sirbhüsün]

shövög : awl [OM sibhüge < sibhe- brand, cp. Kyr shibhege, Tur sivri pointed, OT *süvri, Man sifi- sting]

shudgara : honest [OM sidur- smoothen, Kal shudrega honest, shudreha shave off, Tur siyir- peel, skin, OT *sidir, cp. Man shudu-]

shugam : line [OM sigam]

shuguy : thicket [OM siguy, cp. Jap shigemi]

shulah : separate [OM silu-]

shuluun : straight [OM silaghun]

shumuul : mosquito zool [OM simaghul and simaghusun]

shunah : be avid [OM sinu-]

shungah : dive [see shingeh]

shuud : straight, direct [OM sighud]

shuudan : mail, post

shuuday : sack [cp. Tuv shooday, Chi shou-dai hand-sack]

shuuduu : ditch [Chi shui water]

shuugih : be noisy [OM sigi-, cp. Eve chivin noise, Jap sakebu cry]

shuurga : storm [OM sighurgan, cp. Tuv shuurgan, Jap shigure drizzle]

shuvuu : bird [OM sibhaghun]

shüd : tooth [OM sidün]

shüdlen : two-year old zool [OM sidüleng]

shüleg : poem [Skt sloka]

shüls : saliva [OM silüsün and silükey, Kal shülkee, cp. Kyr shilekey, OT *sülekei]

shült : lye [OM silta]

shür : coral [OM sirü bead]

shüü : salpeter [Chi hsiao]

shüügch : judge

shüür : broom [OM *sighür and *sebhighür < sighü-; see shüüreh]

shüür : filter [OM sighür, cp. Tur süz, Kyr süz-, OT *süz < *sür]

shüüreh : grab [OM sighüre- < sighü- < *siph-, Kal sevüür, cp. Tur süpür- sweep, Kyr shipir-, OT *süp, Man sibki- examine]

shüüs : juice [OM sighüsün, cp. Eve chuukse, Man shusu food, Chi chi juice]

siyleh : cut, engrave [OM seyil-]

sogoo : hind zool [OM sogu]

sohor : blind [OM soqur, cp. Kyr sokur]

solgoy : left [cp. Tur sol, Kyr sol and sologoy left-handed]

solih : exchange [OM soli-]

solongo : rainbow [OM solungga]

solongo : skunk, weasel zool [OM solungga, cp. Man solohi marten, Eve sulaki fox]

solongos : Kor [OM solungga, cp. Man solho]

songino : onion [OM songgina, cp. Tur soghan, Tuv soguna, Man senggule garlic, Chi tsung onion]

songoh : choose [OM songgu-]

sonin : news; interesting [OM sonin < *son-, cp. Tuv solun newspaper, Man soningga new; see sonor]

sono : gadfly zool [OM sona]

sonor : hearing; news [OM sonur < *son-]

sonsoh : hear [OM sonu- < *son-; see sonor]

sorgog : sensitive

soril : experiment

sormos : eyelash [OM sormusun and sormusug, cp. Man solmin, Eve sarimikta]

soroh : suck [OM soru-, cp. Tur soru-, Kyr sor-]

soronzon : magnet [cp. Kal shornzo]

soyh : feed horse [OM soyi- tie up horse to cool down, Kal sööhe, cp. Tur soghuk cold, Kyr suuk, Tuv sook, OT *soghi-, Kor soida cool down]

soyol : culture [OM  soyil training < soyi-, Kal sööl; see soyh]

soyombo : emblem

soyoo : fang; bud [OM soyugha, Kal soyaa and süye]

sögdöh : kneel [OM sögüd- and sökür- bend the knees, cp. OT *sökür-]

söl : grass [OM söl sap]

sönöh : be ended [OM sönü- <* sön-, cp. Tur sön- be extinguished, OT *sön-, Eve si-]

söög : bush [OM sögheg]

sööngö : hoarse [OM söghenggi < sögheng]

sös : bile anat [OM sö(l)sün, cp. Man silhi, Eve sii, Kor ssün bitter]

sudag : ravine [OM sudaga]

sudas : vein anat [OM suda(l)sun, cp. Jap suji sinew]

sudlah : research

suga : armpit anat [OM sugu, Kal suu and süü]

sul : weak; free, loose [OM sula, cp. Man sula]

sum : arrow [OM sumun]

sunah : extend [cp. Tur sun- hand over, Kyr sun- extend, OT *sun-]

sundlah : ride in pair [OM sundala- < *sung-, cp. Tur son after, OT *song]

sur : thong [cp. OT *sirim]

surah : study [cp. Tur sor- ask, Kyr sura-, OT *sur-]

surgaag : pole [OM surgaghag and sirug, cp. Tur sirik, OT *siruk, Man shuruqu]

suuh : sit [OM saghu-]

suulga : bucket [OM *sabhulga < *sabha; see sav]

suusar : marten zool [OM sausar or subhsar, cp. Tur sansar, Kyr suusar, Per susmar]

suvag : canal

suvd : pearl [OM subhud and subhusun]

süh : axe [OM süke, cp. Man suhe, Eve suke, Jap suki plough]

sülbeer : pin [OM sülbe- prick, cp. Jap surudoi pointed]

süld : symbol [OM sülde banner]

süm : temple [OM süme, cp. Eve saman shaman, Jap sumeragi emperor]

sünderleh : rise

süns : soul [OM sünesün]

sür : majesty [OM sür]

sürdeh : fear [OM sürdü-]

süreg : herd [cp. Tur sürü]

sürel : straw [OM süghüril]

süü : milk [cp. Tur süt, Kyr süt]

süüder : shade [OM seghüder, cp. Man sebderi shadowy]

süül : tail zool [OM seghül]

süürs : sigh [OM seghüresü]

süv : hole [OM sübhe]



T

ta : you ppron [see chi]

taah : guess [OM tagha- < *tapha-, cp. Kyr tap- find, OT *tap-]

taarah : pass, match [OM taghara-]

taglah : close [OM tagla-]

tagt : balcony [Tur taht throne, Per takht]

tah : wild horse zool [OM taki, cp. Tur teke buck, Man takintu and tahi wild horse]

tah : horseshoe [OM taqa, cp. Kyr taka, Tib]

tahia : hen [OM takiya, cp. Tur tavuk, Kyr took, Man coqo chicken, Kit *t'axia (Chinggeltei 2002, 107), Kor tak, Jap tori bird]

tahih : sacrifice [OM taki-]

tahiyh : bend [OM taki-, cp. Man takiya knee]

tal : steppe, plain [OM tala, cp. Kyr talaa, Skt tala]

tal : side; half [OM tala]

talh : bread [OM talqan wheat flour, cf. Kyr talkan oatmeal, OT *talkan]

talst : crystal

taltsah : divide

tam : hell [OM tamu, cp. Skt tamas darkness]

tamga : seal [OM tamuga, cp. Tur damga, Kyr tamga, Tib tham-ga]

tamhi : tobacco [OM tamaki, cp. Kyr tameki, Eve damga, Per tanbaku, Tib tha-mag]

tamir : strength [OM tamir, cp. Tur damar sinew, vein, Kyr tamir root, vein, OT *tamir]

tamshaah : smack [OM tamsiya-, cp. Man tamisha-, Jap tamesu try]

tana : nacre [OM tana, cp. Man tana]

tanhim : hall

tanih : know [cp. Tur tani- know, recognize, Kyr taani-, Eve taag- get to know]

taraah : distribute

tarah : end

targan : thick, fat [OM targun, cp. Man tarhun]

tarhah : scatter [OM tarqa-]

tarhi : brain [OM taraki]

tarih : sow [cp. Kyr tara- be dispersed, OT *tara-, and Tur dari millet, Kyr taruu, OT *tari-, Man tari- till]

tarlah : train horses

tarvaga : marmot zool [OM tarbhagan, cp. Man tarbahi and tarqan beaver]

tas : completely [OM tasu, cp. Jap tashika certainly]

tas : vulture zool [OM tasu, cp. OT *tas, Man tasahari black eagle]

tasag : section [OM tasug piece]

tashaa : side, hip [OM tasigha]

taslah : pull off, tear down [OM tasul-]

tasrah : break off, burst [OM tasura-]

tatah : pull [cp. Tur tart- weigh, Kyr tart- pull, OT *tart-]

tav : five num [OM tabhun, Man tofohon fifteen, Eve tunnga five, Kit *ta… (t'ao), Kog *uti (Itabashi 2003, 154)]

tavag : dish [OM tabhag, cp. Tur tabak, Kyr tabhak, OT *tabaq]

tavi : fifty num [OM tabhin < *tabhun-on; see tav]

tavih : put [OM tabhi-, cp. Man te-, Eve tev-, Kor tuda]

tavtsan : tribune [OM tabhting throne, Kal taptseng divan]

taylah : pull out [OM tayila- < tayi-]

tayvan : peaceful, quiet [cp. Tuv taybin, Chi tai-ping peace]

tedgeer : that [OM tede]

teeh : load [OM teghe-; see tavih]

tegeh : make so [see ter]

tegsh : flat, even [OM tegsi < teg straight, cp. Kyr tegiz, Tuv deski, Man teksi]

teleh : spread [OM tele-, cp. Tur tel wire, Jap tsuru string]

temdeg : sign [cp. Tuv demdek]

temee : camel zool [OM temeghe and *tebheghe < *tebhe-, cp. Tur deve, Kyr töö, OT *tebhe, Man temen, Eve temegen, Chi tuo]

temtseh : make efforts, fight for [OM temüti- < *temü-, cp. Man temshe-]

temüüleh : make efforts [OM temüghüle- < *temü-]

tend : there [OM tende, cp. Eve taaduu]

tenger : heaven [cp. Tabgach *tenggirin (ch'i-lien), Sien-Pi tenkirin, Hsiung-Nu chengli (Doerfer 1992, 46), Chi tien]

tengis : sea [OM tenggis, cp. Tur deniz, Kyr dengiz, OT *tengiz]

tenhreh : strengthen

tentseh : be alike, correspond [OM tengti- < teng balance, cp. Tur denge, Kyr teng equal, OT *teng]

tenüüleh : wander [OM teneghüle-]

ter : that [cp. Man tere, Eve tar]

tereg : cart [OM tergen]

tergüün : head, tip [OM terigün ; see terüü]

teseh : tolerate [OM tesü-, cp. Man tesu- suffice]

tetgeh : support [OM tedkü- < *ted-]

tevsh : trough [OM tebhsi, cp. Tur tepsi, Kyr tepshi, Chi]

tezheeh : feed [OM tediye- < *ted-, cp. Eve tedeev- convey, Jap tsutaeru; see tetgeh]

tig : zero [Tib thig]

tiv : continent [Skt dvipa island]

tiym : such

tod : clear [OM toda, cp. Man tondo straight, Eve tongno, Jap tadashii rightful, accurate]

todroh : appear [OM todara-]

togloh : play [OM togli-]

togmol : regular

togoo : pot, kettle [OM togugha]

togoruu : crane zool [OM togurighun, Tur turna, Kyr turuna, Eve tokorov, Jap tsuru, Kor turumi]

togos : peacock zool [OM togus, cp. Tur tavus, Kyr toos, Gre taos]

togtoh : determine [OM togta-]

tohioldoh : happen

tohiroh : correspond, agree

tohoh : saddle [OM toqu-, cp. Kyr tokum saddlecloth, Tur tüy hair, Tuv dük, OT *tük]

tohoy : bend [OM tuqay, cp. Kyr tokoy forest]

tohuu : joy

tolgoy : head [OM tolugay]

toli : mirror [OM toli smooth]

tom : big

tomiloh : appoint [OM tomila-, cp. Jap tsumori intention]

tomoh : spin [OM tomi-, cp. Man tonggo-, Eve tomko yarn, Jap tsumu spindle and tsumugu spin]

ton : quite [OM tong; see changa]

tongoyh : bend [OM tongguyi-, cp. Man tunggi bow]

tonog : equipment [OM tonug < *ton, cp. Tur don underwear,  Kyr ton sheepskin coat, OT *ton]

tonoh : plunder [OM tonu-, cp. Kyr tonoo robbery]

too : number [OM togha, cp. Man ton, Eve tang-, Tib tho]

toodog : bustard zool [OM toghadag, cp. Kyr toodok, Man todo]

tooh : care [OM togha-, cp. Man tuwa- look]

toor : peach bot

toos : dust, earth [OM toghusun and toghurag < *toghu- < *tophu-, cp. Kit *ta…wəs (t'ao-wei-su), Sien-Pi taghutin (Doerfer 1992, 49), Tur toz and toprak, Kyr topurak, Tuv dovurak earth, OT *top(r)a, Eve tukala]

toosgo : brick [OM toghusga and toghusqa < *toghu-; see toos]

tor : net [cp. Kyr tor, OT *tor]

torgo : silk fabric [cp. Tuv torgu, Eve torga]

torh : barrel [OM torqu, cp. Jap tarai tub]

tos : fat, oil [OM tosun]

toti : parrot zool [cp. Kyr totu, Per toti]

tovch : button [OM tobhti, Kal topchi, cp. Kyr topchu, Tib]

toyg : kneecap anat [OM toying < *toghing < *toph-, cp. Tur topuk heel, ankle, OT *topik, Man tobgiya knee]

toyroh : go round [OM toghari-, cp. Man torho-, torgi-]

tödölgüy : hardly [OM tedüy so much]

tögrög : coin [OM tögörüg circle, cp. Tuv tögerik round, Kyr tegerek circle]

tögs : complete [OM tegüs]

töhööröh : equip [OM tokiyara-, Kal tökeerhe]

töl : offspring zool [OM töl, cp. OT *töl]

tölög : lamb zool [OM tölgen, see töl]

tölöh : pay [OM töle- compensate, cp. Tuv töle- pay]

tölöö : for [OM töleghe compensation < töle-; see tölöh]

tölöv : form [OM tölübh, cp. Man tulgi- exterior, Eve tuligu]

töms : potato bot [OM tömüsün]

tömür : iron [cp. Tur demir, Kyr temir, OT *tömür, Kot t'ip, Chi tiet (Mandarin tie), Kor tach anchor]

töö : span [OM teghü, cp. Man to]

tör : state [OM törü law, cp. Tur töre rule, Kyr törö master, OT *törü]

töröl : sort, kind [OM törel kin]

töröh : bear [OM töre-, cp. Kyr töröl- be born, OT *tör-]

tösöh : plan [OM tösü-]

töv : center [OM töbh]

tövd : Tib [OM tübhed]

tövögtey : difficult

tsaad : that [OM tinadu, cp. Man casi and cala]

tsaas : paper [OM tiyagha(l)sun < *tiyagha- reed; see tsagaan]

tsadah : be sated [OM tiyad-]

tsag : time [cp. Tur cagh]

tsagaan : white [OM tiyaghan < *tiyagha-, cp. Man calfa birch, Eve chalban]

tsahih : strike fire [OM tiyaki-, cp. Tur cakmak lighter, Kyr chakmak flint, OT *cak-, Man takiyan lightning, Jap taku burn, Kor thada]

tsahilgaan : electricity [OM tiyakilgan lightning < tiyaki- strike fire]

tsalin : wage [Chi chaliang]

tsamhag : tower [OM tiyamqag, cp. Man camhan triumphal arc]

tsamts : shirt [cp. Man samsu hemp fabric, cimci skirt, Kor sap hemp]

tsan : bell [OM tiyang, cp. Tur can, Per chang]

tsan : hoar [OM tiyang < *tiyagh-; see tsagaan]

tsana : ski [OM tiana sled, cp. Kyr chana]

tsaray : face

tsardas : crust [OM tiyardasun < tiyar]

tsaril : crowbar [OM tiril and tilir < tili blade, cp. Jap tsurugi sword]

tsartsaa : locust zool [OM tirtigha and sartigha, cp. OT *sarisqa]

tsas : snow [OM tiyasun < *tiyagha-sun; see tsagaan]

tsavuu : glue [OM tiyabhaghu and tiyabag < *tiyaphagh, cp. Tur capak gum, OT *capak]

tsay : tea [Chi cha]

tsayh : be white [OM tiyayi- < *tiyagh-; see tsagaan]

tsayr : zinc [OM tiyayir < *tiyagh-; see tsagaan]

tseezh : breast anat [OM tighedin, cp. Man tunggen]

tselmeg : clear [OM tilme- and tilger]

tsengel : joy [OM tinggel]

tsereg : army [cp. Tur ceri, Tuv sherig]

tsetseg : flower [cp. Tur cicek, Tuv chechek]

tsetsen : wise [OM titen and sisen, cp. Tur sec- choose]

tsever : clean [OM tibher]

tsevrüü : boil, ulcer [OM tibherüghen]

tsochih : scare [OM tiyoti- or soti-]

tsog : ember; glory [OM tiyog]

tsohih : hit [OM tiyoki-, cp. Kyr sok- and chokmor cudgel, OT *soq- and *coq-]

tsol : title [OM tiyola]

tsolmon : Venus [OM tiyolbun, cp. Kyr cholpon, Tur culpan]

tsonh : window [cp. Tuv songgo, Chi chuong-kou]

tsoo : quite, through [OM tiyoghu]

tsoohor : variegated [OM tiyoqur < *tiyoghur < *tiyobhur < tiyobh wart, cp. Tur copur pockmarked, Jap sobakasu freckles]

tsoorah : be perforated [OM tiyoghura- < tiyoghu; see tsoo]

tsöhöh : despair [OM tiyökü-, cp. Tur cök- fall down, Kyr chök- sink, OT *cök-]

tsöl : desert [OM tiyöl, cp. Kyr chöl, OT *cöl]

tsöm : all [OM tiyöm]

tsöön : few [OM tiyöghen]

tsöövör : jackal zool [OM tiyöghebhör < *tiyöghe böri, cp. Kyr börü wolf, OT *böri]

tsös : bile anat [OM tiyö(l)sün; see sös]

tsötsgiy : cream

tsug : together [OM tiyug, cp. Kyr chulga- wrap, OT *cug bundle and *cuk dense]

tsuhuyh : spread

tsunh : pocket

tsurhay : pike [OM tiruqay]

tsus : blood anat [OM tisun]

tsuu : call [OM tiyu; onom.]

tsuv : raincoat [OM *tibha fur coat]

tug : banner [cp. Tur tugh, Tuv tuk, Kyr tuu, Tib tog, Chi]

tugal : calf zool [OM tugul, cp. OT *toqlu, cp. Man tuqshan]

tugalga : tin, lead

tuhay : over

tuhlah : take time

tul : because, so that [see tölöö]

tulah : support [OM tulu- < *tul-]

tulga : grid [OM tulga support < *tul-; see tulah]

tunah : settle [OM tunu-]

turah : be lean [OM tura-, cp. Jap toroi slow, languid]

turliah : jack-daw zool [OM turulagh]

tursh : during [OM tursi long]

turshih : examine [OM tursi-]

tus : this [OM tus the other side, cp. Tuv tuskay separate]

tus : profit [OM tusa, cp. Tuv duza, Man tusa]

tusah : hit [OM tusu-]

tushaah : order [OM tusiya- < tus; see tus]

tuslah : help [OM tusala-]

tutam : each [OM tutum and dutum]

tuulah : go through [OM taghul- < *taphul-, cp. OT *topul-, Jap tooru pass, penetrate]

tuulay : hare [cp. Tur tavsan, OT *tabelgan, Kit *ta…lə (tao-li) (Doerfer 1992, 49; Chinggeltei 2002, 107; Vovin 2004, 121), Jap tobu jump, Kor t'uida, Chi tiao]

tuuli : tale [cp. Tuv tool, Chi]

tuuray : hoof [OM tughuray and turugh-, cp. Jap tsume nail, Kor thop]

tuurga : wall [OM tughurga]

tuurvih : begin [OM tughurbhi- plan, compile]

tuuzhuu : broom

tuyaa : ray [OM tuyagha]

tuylin : overly

tügeeh : distribute [OM tügüghe- < tügü- extend, cp. Kyr tök- spill, OT *tök- pour out, Jap tsugu fill out]

tügshüür : anxiety

tüleh : heat [OM tüle- < *tüghe-le- < *tügh-, cp. Tuv dül- cook, Eve dülacha sun; see tüymer]

tülheh : push [OM tülki-]

tülhüür : key [OM tülkighür < tülki-, cp. Tuv dülgüür; see tülheh]

tümen : myriad [cp. Tur tümen, Man tumen]

türee : boot-leg [cp. Tur diz knee, Kyr tize, OT *tir]

türeh : push forward [cp. OT *tür-]

türgen : quick [OM türgen < tür, cp. Tuv tür temporary, Man türgen fast]

türheh : smear [OM türki-]

türs : fish roe [OM türisün]

türüü : ear bot [OM terighü head, cp. Chi tou]

tüshih : support [OM tüsi-]

tüüdeg : bonfire [OM tüghüdeg < *tügh-, cp. Man tuwa fire, Eve togo; see tüymer]

tüüh : history [Chi]

tüühiy : raw [OM tüghükey]

tüüniy : his ppron [OM teghünü of that; see ter]

tüymer : fire [OM tüyimür < *tüghü-mür < *tügh-, or < *tüli-mür < *tüle-; see tüleh]

U

uchir : cause, ground [OM utir]

uchrah : meet [OM utira-]

ud : willow bot [OM udun < *pudun, Dag hudi-, cp. Man fodon, Kor patül]

udah : take time [OM udagha-]

udirdah : lead [OM udu-]

ug : root [OM ug and unggi, cp. OT *uq, cp. Man uksun]

ugaah : wash [OM ugiya- < *ugi-; see us]

ugtah : accept [OM ugtu-, Kal uktaha]

uhah : understand [OM uqa-, cp. Kyr uk-, OT *uk]

uhah : dig [OM uqu-, cp. Jap ugatsu pierce]

uhna : buck zool

ul : sole anat [OM ula]

ulaan : red [OM ulaghan < *pulaghan, Dag hulaan, Mgr fulaan, cp. Man fulgiyan, Eve hulama, Kor p'algan]

ulam : more [OM *ula-, cp. Tur ulam team, Kyr ulan- continue, Man ula-]

uliangar : poplar bot

ulias : aspen bot [OM uliasun < *puliasun, cp. Eve hula, Man fulha poplar, Jap hari and han-no-ki black alder, OJ pari]

uliral : season

uls : state [OM ulus nation, cp. Tur ulus, Kyr ulut, Tuv ulus]

ultsgar : difficult

umay : womb anat [OM omay]

unah : ride [OM unu- < *punu-, Don hun-, Mgr funi-, cp. Man unu-]

und : drink [OM unda, umda, cp. Man omi-]

ungah : fart [OM unggu- < *punggu-, Don hunggu-]

ungas : wool [OM unggasun and nunngasun; see noos]

uni : pole

uniar : mist [OM uniyar < *puni-, Dag honi, Mgr funi]

unshih : read [OM ungsi-]

untah : sleep [OM unta-, umta- < *pumta-, Dag huntura-, cp. Tur unut- forget, Kyr unut-, Eve omngo-]

ur : championship [OM uran art, cp. OT *uz]

urah : tear apart [OM uru-]

urgah : grow [OM urgu-]

urhi : snare [OM urqa < *purqa, cp. Tur urgan rope, Kyr arkan lasso, Man hurka and fuca snare]

urid : before [OM urida < uri]

urih : invite [OM uri- < *puri-, cp. Kor pulüda]

urihan : soft [OM uriqan]

ursgah : flow [OM urus-]

urt : long [OM *ur- < *pur-, Don fudu, Mgr fudur, cp. Tur uzun, Kyr uzak, Jap furui old]

uruu : down [OM urughu < *purughu, Dag horoo, Mgr furu, cp. Man fura- dive]

uruul : lip anat [OM urul < *purul, Dag horol, Don furun]

us : water [OM usun < *u and *husun sap, Buriat uha water]

ustah : perish [OM usta-]

utaa : smoke [OM utagha < *putagha, Dag hutaa]

utas : wire, thread [OM utasun < *putasun, cp. Tuv udazin, Man futa cord]

utga : sense [OM utqa]

uuchlah : forgive [OM aghutila-]

uudam : wide [OM aghuda- < aghu]

uugan : firstborn [OM augan; see aag]

uuh : drink [OM aghu-]

uul : mountain [OM aghulan]

uul : tinder [OM alu < *palu, cp. Man fulakcan tinderbox pouch]

uuli : owl zool [OM aghuli < *paghuli, cp. Kyr ükü, Jap fukuro]

uulzah : meet [OM aghuldi-]

uur : steam; atmosphere; fury [OM aghur, cp. Man abka sky]

uur : mortar [OM aghur, cp. Tur övüt- grind, OT *ög-, Man o and ogo mortar]

uurag : first milk [OM urag]

uurhay : pit, mine [OM aghurqay < *paghurqay, cp. Jap horu dig, OJ poru, Jap haka grave, OJ paka, Kor p'ada < *p'al- dig]

uushgi : lung [OM *aghusgi and aghuski and ouski, cp. Kyr öpkö, Man ufuhu, Kor phye]

uut : bag [OM aghuta < *paghuta, cp. Eve hutakan, Jap fukuro, Kor phode]

uuts : loin anat [OM uti, cp. OT *ucha, Man uca]

uyah : bind, sew [OM uya- < *puya-, cp. Tur oya embroidery oyulga- stitch, Eve uy- tie]

uyan : elastic [cp. Tuv iyat shame, OT *uya, Man uyan weak]

uylah : weep [OM uyila-, cp. Kyr iyla-, Tuv igla-, OT *iyla]

Ü

üd : noon [OM üde, cp. Tur öghle, OT *öd]

üdeh : join [OM üdü-]

üdeh : accompany [OM üde- < *püde-, cp. Tuv üde-, Man fude- lead, Tur uy- pass, adapt, OT *ud]

üdesh : evening [OM üdesi]

üg : word [OM üge]

ügiy : lack [OM ügey, Kal ugaa, cp. Tur yok have no, OT *yok]

üheg : box [OM üküg]

üheh : die [OM ükü- < *pükü-, Don huku-, Mgr fugu-]

üher : cattle zool [OM üker < *püker, Don fugie, cp. Tur öküz ox, Kyr ögüz, OT *öküz]

ül : not

üldeh : chase [OM ülde- < *pülde-, cp. Eve helin- hurry]

üleh : rest, remain [OM ülü- < *pül-, Dag hulu- leave more, Mgr fulee-; see ülemzh]

üleeh : blow [OM üliye- < *püliye-, Dag huul-, Don fulie-, Mgr puule-, cp. Kyr üylö-, Man fulgiye-, Eve huv-, Kor puda, Jap fuku]

ülemzh : more [OM üle- < *pül- be much, cp. Man fulu plenty]

ülger : comparison; tale [OM üliger < üli- compare < *ügüli- tell, cp. Man elin; see üg]

ündes : root [OM ündüsün]

üne : price [cp. Eve uniye- sell]

ünee : cow zool [cp. Tur inek, OT *inek, Man uniyen, Kit *unj ox (Chinggeltei 2002, 107; Vovin 2004, 121)]

üneg : fox zool [cp. Tur enik kitten, puppy, OT *enük, Man funiyehe hair, Jap inu dog]

üner : smell [OM ünür < *pünü-, Dag huunu-, Mgr funir, cp. SKor pun]

üns : ash [OM ünesün < *pünesün, Don funiesun, Mgr hunse, cp. Man fulenggi]

ünseh : kiss [OM ünüs- < *pünü-; see üner]

ür : seed, offspring; fruit; result [OM üre < *püre, Dag hure, Mgr fure, cp. Tuv üre seed and uruk child, Tur üre- be increased, Kyr ürön seed, Man fursun sprout, Eve hute child, offspring, Jap uji lineage, Kor ul family]

ürchiyh : wrinkle [OM ürtiyi- < *pür-, cp. Tur büz- shrink, OT *bür-]

üreh : squander [OM üre- < *püre- go apart, cp. Tuv üre- break, Tur vur- beat, Kyr ur-, OT *ur-, Man fori-, Jap furuu shake]

üreh : rub [OM ürü- < *pürü-, cp. Tur üz- make sad, Kyr üz- break off, OT *ür-, Man furuku rasp]

ürgeh : scare [cp. Tur ürk- be scared, Kyr ürk-, OT *ürk, Man fuce-, Jap odoroku be surprised]

ürgelzh : permanent [OM ürgüldi, cp. OT *ürgüldzhü]

üs : hair [OM üsün < *püsün, cp. Dag husu]

üseg : letter [OM üsüg < *püsüg, cp. Man fusihen writing tablet, Kor s'üda < *psü- write]

üsreh : jump [OM ösür- < *pösür-, Kal öserhe, cp. Man fusu- sprinkle, Kor pusta pour]

ütree : vagina [OM ütü- < *pütü-, cp. Tuv üt hole, OT *üt, Man feteri nostril]

üü : wart [OM eghü < *peghü, cp. Man fuhu]

üüd : door [OM eghüden]

üül: cloud, darkness [OM eghülen, Tabgach *eülen (yu-lien) (Doerfer 1992, 45)]

üüniy : his, of this [OM eghüney]

üür : nest [OM eghür < *peghür, cp. Man feye, Eve hugi]

üür : dawn [OM ür and ör, cp. OT *örüng bright]

üüreh : carry [OM eghüre-, cp. Jap ou]

üüseh : form [OM eghüs- < *eghü-]

üye : joint; generation, epoch [OM üye]

üyen : ermine zool [cp. Jap u hare]

üyer : flood [OM üyir]

üyl : deed, affair [OM üyile, cp. Man uilen]

üymeh : make tumult [OM üyime- < *püyime-, cp. Man fumere- mix]

üyreh : crumble [OM üyire-]

üzeg : pen [OM üdiyüg < *diyüg bamboo, Chi chu (Mandarin zhu, dial. chuk)]

üzeh : see [OM üdi-]

üzem : grape bot [cp. Tur üzüm]

üzüür : tip [OM üdigür < *üdi-, cp. Man udiu head]

V

vaar : vase [Chi]

van : king [Chi wang]

vanduy : pea [Chi wan-tou]

vintov : rifle [Russian vintovka]

vokzal : station [Russian vokzal]



Y

yaah : do something [OM *ighu-; see yuu]

yaam : goverment office [Chi ya-men]

yaarah : hurry [OM *ighara- < *igh-, cp. Tur yagh- rain down; see yüüleh]

yadah : be unable, be in need [OM *ida-, cp. Tuv yadii poor, Man yada- need]

yaduu : poor [OM idaghu < *ida-, cp. Tur yaya pedestrian, OT *yadha; see yadah]

yag : exactly

yal : punishment [OM *ila, cp. OT *yala-]

yalaa : fly, mosquito zool [OM ilaghasun, cp. Kor phari, Jap hae, hachi bee, OJ pape, pati]

yalah : be victorious

yalgah : discern [OM ilga-]

yalzrah : rot [OM ildira-]

yam : snot [OM *ima]

yamaa : goat [OM imaghan, cp. Man niman and imahan, Kit *ema sheep (Chinggeltei 2002, 107; Vovin 2004, 121)]

yamagt : always [OM imagta]

yamba : privilege [see yaam]

yanag : beloved [cp. Tuv inak love, OT *ina-]

yangir : mountain goat anat

yanhan : prostitute [OM *ingqan]

yanz : model, type [Chi yang-ji]

yanzga : young antelope zool

yar : ulcer [OM ira, cp. Tur yara wound]

yarih : speak [OM ira-]

yaruu : harmony [OM iraghu < ira-, cp. Kyr ir song, OT *ir; see yarih]

yaruu : noble [OM iraghu < *yara- shine, cp. OT yar- bright]

yas : bone [OM isun]

yatga : harp [OM itugan < *pitugan, cp. Man yatuhan and fitugan]

yatgah : convince

yavah : go [OM ibha-, cp. Man yabu-, yafa- and yoo-]

yazguur : root [OM idigur < *pidighur, cp. Man fujuri origin]

yeeven : cake [Chi yüeh-bing]

yer : general [OM *irü]

yerööh : wish [OM irüghe- < *pirü-, cp. Man firu- curse]

yertönts : world [see zerleg]

yes : nine num [OM i(r)-sün, cp. Eve yegin, Kit *is (Chinggeltei 2002, 107)]

yooton : candy [Chi yao-tang]

yor : omen [cp. Tur yorum interpretation, Jap uranau divine]

yorool : ground [OM irughal < *pir; see ir]

yos : habit, custom [cp. Tuv yozu, Man yoso, Chi yo]

yosloh : salute [OM *isula- be polite]

yöstoy : genuine

yotuu : partridge zool [OM itaghu, cp. Man itu and gituku, Chi gi-ton-gu]

yum : thing [OM y(agh)uman]

yuu : what [OM ighu, cp. Man ai and ya which, Eve ekun what]

yüüleh : pour over [OM *ighüle- < *igh-, cp. Tur yu- wash and OT *yük- rain down; see yaarah]

Z

zaa : good [OM diye]

zaag : border [OM dighag]

zaah : show [OM digha-]

zaah : join [OM digha- < *dipha-, cp. Tur yap- make, Man yafa- catch]

zaan : elephant zool [OM dighan, cp. Tuv chaan, OT *yaghan]

zaari : moschus [OM dighari < *diphari, cp. Kyr zhipar fragrance, OT *yipar]

zaaval : absolutely [cp. SKor cha-pul well-(or)-not]

zadlah : open [OM didal-]

zagas : fish zool [OM digasun, cp. Man nimaha]

zagnah : scold [OM dingna-]

zah : rim; collar [OM diqa, cp. Tur yaka collar, Kyr zhaka, OT *yaqa]

zahia : letter [OM dikiyan < diki-, cp. Tur yaka collar, Kyr zhaka, OT *yaqa; see zahih]

zahih : order [OM diki-]

zalgah : connect, lengthen [OM dilga-, cp. Kyr zhalga-, OT *yalga, Man dialu- succeed]

zalgih : swallow [OM diyalgi-]

zalhuu : lazy [OM dilqa- be lazy, cp. Kyr zhalkoo, OT *yashi]

zali : deceit [OM dili, cp. Tur yalan lie, Kyr zhalgan, Man diali deceit]

zaluu : young [OM dilaghu, cp. Kot d'al child]

zam : road [OM dim, cp. Tib lam]

zan : manner [OM ding]

zanah : threat [OM dinu- and dingga-, cp. OT *yan-]

zandan : sandalwood bot [Skt candana]

zandrah : shout at [OM dingdur- threaten]

zanga : snare [OM dinggu]

zanshih : be accustomed [OM dingsi-]

zaraa : hedgehog zool [OM diragha]

zarah : sell [OM diru- assign as a servant]

zarlig : decree [OM dirlig, cp. Tur yarlik, OT *yarliq]

zasah : repair, improve [OM disa- punish, cp. Tur yasa law, Man dasa- correct]

zavi : boat [OM dibhi, cp. Man jaya, Eve diav]

zavsar : interval [OM dibhsar < dibh]

zay : distance [OM diyay free space]

zazhlah : chew [OM didila-, cp. Tur cighne- crush, gnaw, OT *yigh-]

zedgene : strawberry bot [OM didgene, cp. Tur cilek, OT *yilek, Man duqsi blackberry, Eve dikte berry; see zhimsgene]

zee : grandson [OM dighe, cp. Tur yeghen nephew, Kyr zheen, OT yeghen]

zeeh : wolverine zool [OM digheken, cp. OT *yeken akin to Tur ye- eat, Kyr zhe-, OT *ye-]

zeel : market; loan [OM digheli street]

zeer : antelope zool [OM digheren, cp. Tur ceylan gazelle, Kyr zheyren, OT *yeghren]

zegs : rush, reed bot [OM digesün, cp. Kyr zheken, OT *yeken]

zem : scolding [OM dime]

zereg : rank, sort [OM dirge, cp. OT *yerge]

zerleg : wild [OM dirlig < *dir land, cp. Tur yer place, Kyr zher earth]

zes : copper [OM dis, cp. Kyr zhez, Tuv ches brass, OT *yes]

zev : tip [OM dibhe < *dibh- arrowhead, cp. Kyr zhebhe arrow; see züü]

zev : rust [OM dibhe]

zevseg : weapon [OM dibhseg and dimseg < *dibh-, cp. Tuv chepsek, OT *yepse-; see zev]

zhaahan : small [see zhaalhan]

zhaal : child

zhaalhan : small [see zhaal]

zhaaz : frame [Chi jia-ji]

zhad : spear [OM dida, cp. Man gida]

zhalga : ravine [OM dilga, cp. OT *yilga]

zhar : sixty num [OM diran <*dirgughan-on; see zurgaa]

zhats : ammoniac [Tib rgya-tsva]

zhavar : cool wind [OM dibhar]

zhavhlah : be glorious [OM dibhqula-]

zhich : also [OM diti < *dirti < *diri two; see zhiremsen]

zhil : year [OM dil, cp. Tur yil, Kyr zhil, OT yil, Jap toshi]

zhimiyh : squeeze [OM dimüy-, cp. Tur yum- close eyes, OT *yum-]

zhims : fruit bot [OM dimis, cp. Tur yemis, Kyr zhemis]

zhimsgene : berry bot [see zhims, zedgene]

zhin : weight [OM ding, Chi chang]

zhiremsen : pregnant [OM dirumsun < *diri two, cp. Man diuwe, Eve diur, Kit *chur (Chinggeltei 2002, 107)]

zhirgeh : sing [OM dirga- be happy, cp. Kyr zhirgal pleasure, OT *yirga]

zhishee : example [OM disiye]

zhivaa : ten million num [Kal zhovaa, Tib bye-ba]

zhizhig : small [OM didig]

zholoo : bridle, rein [OM dilugha, cp. Tur yular, Man diulhu, Eve dül head]

zhoroo : ambler [OM dirugha, cp. Kyr zhorgo, OT *yorgha]

zhor : recipe [Tib sbyar-ba formula]

zhötöö : envy [OM diyöteghü, cp. OT *yütkü]

zhuram : order [OM dirum]

zhüzhig : show [OM diyüdigi]

zochloh : be a host [OM ditila-]

zodoh : hit [OM diyoda-, cp. Kyr zhoy-, OT *yod-]

zogsoh : stand [OM digsa-]

zohih : correspond [OM diki-]

zol : luck [OM diyol, cp. Tur yol way, Kyr zhol]

zolgoh : meet [OM dilga-]

zolig : devil [OM dilig vagabund]

zoos : coin [OM dighus]

zorih : make efforts [OM diri-, Kal zörhe, cp. Man diyori- strive; see zörih]

zovoh : suffer [OM diba-]

zögiy : bee [OM diyögey, cp. Eve diuvu- wasp]

zööh : carry [OM dighe-, cp. Tur yük load, Kyr zhük, OT *yük, Man diuwe- transport]

zöölön : soft [OM diyöghelen, cp. Tur yavas slow, Kyr zhoosh meek, OT *yabhal, Jap yawaraka soft]

zörög : path [cp. Man niji]

zöröh : pass [OM diri-, cp. Tur yürü- walk, Kyr zhür- go and zhürü- be in motion, OT *yori- go; see zorih]

zöv : right [OM diyöbh, cp. OT *yöp, Jap mae front]

zövhön : only [OM diyöbhken]

zövlöh : advise [OM diyöbhle- > diyöbh; see zöv]

zud : shortage of fodder [OM did]

zugaa : entertainment [OM diyogha < *diyoph-, cp. Tuv chugaa, Kyr zhubat- comfort, OT *yubh-]

zugtah : flee [OM diguta-]

zulbah : lose hair [OM dilbu- and dilmu-, also dilba-yi hairless < *dil-; see zulgaah]

zulgaah : pluck [OM dilga- < *dil-, cp. Tur yol-, Kyr zhul-, OT *yul-]

zulzaga : young (animal, plant) [OM dildigan < *dil-; see zulgaah]

zun : summer [OM diyun, cp. Man diuwari, Eve diugani]

zurah : paint [OM diru-, cp. Tur yaz- write, Kyr zhaz-, OT *yaz-, Man niru- draw, Jap nuru paint]

zurgaa : six num [OM dirgughan, cp. Man ninggun, Eve nyungun, Kit *nir (Chinggeltei 2002, 107), Jap mu]

zurvas : narrow strip [OM dirbhus]

zuu : hundred num [OM dighun, cp. Tur yüz, Kyr zhüz, Eve nyama, Kit *zhau (chao) (Doerfer 1992, 48; Chienggeltei 2002, 107), Jap momo]

zuuh : bite [OM dighu-]

zuuh : stove [OM diyuqa]

zuuraa : during [OM dighur < *dibhur interval; see zavsar]

zuurah : knead [OM dighura-, cp. Tur yoghur-, Kyr zhuur-, OT *yoghur-, Jap neru]

zuzaan : thick [OM didighan, cp. Kyr zhoon, OT *yogho-]

züdeh : hurry, tire out [OM diyüde-, cp. Kyr zhüdö- be exhausted]

züg : side, direction [cp. Tuv chük]

züheh : curse [OM dikü-]

züleg : lawn [OM dilge]

zülgeh : polish [OM dilgü- rub, scrape, cp. Tur yülü- shave]

zür : antelope zool [OM diyür]

zürh : heart [OM dirüken, cp. Tur yürek, Kyr zhürök, OT *yürek]

zürzh : orange bot [OM dirdi]

züs : color [OM disün, cp. Tur yüz face, Kyr zhuz, OT *yüz]

züseh : cut [OM disü-]

züsreh : hold out [OM disere-]

zütgeh : make efforts [OM didkü-, cp. Tur yet- suffice, Kyr zhet-, OT *yet-]

züü : needle [OM dighün, cp. Tur ighne, Kyr iyne, OT *yighne, Eve inme, Jap ya arrow]

züüd : dream [OM dighüden]

züüh : put [OM dighü-; see zööh]

züün : left; east [OM dighün, cp. Tuv chöön, Eve diegin- left]

züy : affair [OM diyüy, cp. Jap yue reason]

züyrleh : oppose [OM diyirle-]

* * *

Abbreviations:

anat = anatomy

Ara = Arabic



bot = botanics

Chi = Chinese

cp. = compare

Dag = Daghur

dial. = dialect(al)

Don = Dongxian

Eve = Evenki

Gre = Greek

Jap = Japanese

Kal = Kalmyk

Kit = Kitan

Kog = Koguryo

Kor = Korean

Kot = Kottic

Kyr = Kyrgyz

Man = Manchu

Mgr = Monguor

num = numeral, number

onom. = onomatopoeic word

OJ = Old Jap

OM = Old Mongolian

OT = Old Turkic

Pae = Paekche

Per = Persian

pl. = plural



ppron = personal pronoun

Rus = Russian

SJap = Sino-Japanese

SKor = Sino-Korean

Skt = Sanskrit

Tib = Tibetan

Tur = Turkish

Tuv = Tuvan



zool = zoology

Note:

"cp." (=compare) does not mean that the Mongolian word is related to the non-Mongolian words listed here. It only means that they might be related, but the question needs further scrutiny.

The use of "cp." is a way to avoid the controversial notion of Altaic, which had served, at first, to cover the loose group of Turkic, Mongolian and Manchu-Tungusic languages, but later on several linguists also added Korean and even Japanese to the so-called "Altaic languages".

Literature:

Poppe, N.: Vergleichende Grammatik der Altaischen Sprachen (1960)

Ramstedt, G. J.: Kalmückisches Woerterbuch (1935)

Ramstedt, G. J.: Studies in Korean Etymology (1949)

Chinggeltei: On Problems of Reading Kitan (Chinggeltei 2002)

Doerfer, G.: Mongolica im Alttürkischen (Doerfer 1992)

Itabashi, Y.: A Study of the Historical Relationship of Koguryo (Itabashi 2003)

Li Ki Mun: Geschichte der Koreanischen Sprache (Li 1977)



Vovin, A.: Old Japanese (Vovin 2004)
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Mongolian etymological dictionary compiled by andras rajki 2006 A

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