This thesis applies to the need for confidentiality and appropriate ways to achieve such goals. The introduction describes a brief history of cryptology from the appearance of its first use to advanced cryptographic methods of present time. This section should help to better understand the principles of quantum cryptography in following chapters. It gives the historical context to quantum cryptography and defines key terms. Later we will explore the very principles of quantum cryptography. After getting acquainted with basics the thesis fully concerns with current trends in the field of quantum cryptography and with practical applications in the Czech Republic and abroad. In conclusion, there are discussed future possibilities of this very interesting technology.