Who’s Who in Internet Technology: http://www.webopedia.com/quick_ref/bios/a.asp Apache Web Server Often referred to as simply Apache, a public-domain open source Web server developed by a loosely-knit group of programmers. The first version of Apache, based on the NCSA httpd Web server, was developed in 1995.
Core development of the Apache Web server is performed by a group of about 20 volunteer programmers, called the Apache Group. However, because the source code is freely available, anyone can adapt the server for specific needs, and there is a large public library of Apache add-ons. In many respects, development of Apache is similar to development of the Linux operating system.
bandwidth The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time. For digital devices, the bandwidth is usually expressed in bits per second(bps) or bytes per second. For analog devices, the bandwidth is expressed in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz).
bot Synonymous with spider, which is the first part of a search engine. It automatically and frequently searches the Web to find pages and updates its database of information about old Web sites.
cable connection One of the fastest growing of available Internet connection types, particularly among cable television subscribers. Cable connections require cable modems to provide a relatively low cost, very high speed download, a reasonably fast upload rate, and an "always on" connection to the Internet.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) Short for Cascading Style Sheets, a new feature being added to HTML that gives both Web site developers and users more control over how pages are displayed. With CSS, designers and users can create style sheets that define how different elements, such as headers and links, appear. These style sheets can then be applied to any Web page.
The term cascading derives from the fact that multiple style sheets can be applied to the same Web page. CSS was developed by the W3C.
click-through count The number of visitors who click on a Web advertisement link and go to the advertiser's Web site.
clientTypically, a client is an application that runs on a personal computer or workstation and relies on a server to perform some operations. For example, an e-mail client is an application that enables you to send and receive e-mail.
co-location A server, usually a Web server, that is located at a dedicated facility designed with resources which include a secured cage or cabinet, regulated power, dedicated Internet connection, security and support.
These co-location facilities offer the customer a secure place to physically house their hardware and equipment as opposed to locating it in their offices or warehouse where the potential for fire, theft or vandalism is much greater.
Cookie A message given to a Web browser by a Web server. The browser stores the message in a text file. The message is then sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server. The main purpose of cookies is to identify users and possibly prepare customized Web pages for them. When you enter a Web site using cookies, you may be asked to fill out a form providing such information as your name and interests. This information is packaged into a cookie and sent to your Web browser which stores it for later use. The next time you go to the same Web site, your browser will send the cookie to the Web server. The server can use this information to present you with custom Web pages. So, for example, instead of seeing just a generic welcome page you might see a welcome page with your name on it.
domain name A name that identifies one or more IP addresses. For example, the domain name microsoft.com represents about a dozen IP addresses. Domain names are used in URLs to identify particular Web pages. For example, in the URL http://www.pcwebopedia.com/index.html, the domain name is pcwebopedia.com.
Every domain name has a suffix that indicates which top level domain (TLD) it belongs to. There are only a limited number of such domains. For example:
gov - Government agencies
edu - Educational institutions
org - Organizations (nonprofit)
mil - Military
com - commercial business
net - Network organizations
ca - Canada
th - Thailand
domain name lookup The process of converting a numeric IP address into a text name (for example, 188.8.131.52 converts to www.whaddup.com. You can see the reverse of this in action by typing ping www.whaddup.com (or any other domain name) at the command line. That will return the IP address of the domain name you specify. See ping.
dynamic page A Web page whose content is shaped by a program in response to a user request. Web page that respond to users' requests and gather information from them. Oftentimes, they have built-in links to a relational database, from which they extract data based on input from the user (using dynamic SQL). Dynamic Web pages contain very little actual text. Instead, they pull needed information from other applications. Dynamic Web pages communicate with databases to extract employee directory information, spreadsheets to display accounting figures, client-server database management systems to interact with order processing applications, and more.
dynamic SQL (see SQL) This feature modifies queries based on user data, environment variables, and previously returned query results. Dynamic SQL can also increase processing efficiency by executing multiple queries and sending them to multiple databases from a single browser request.
e-Business (e-Mail, e-Commerce, e-Zine, e-Solution, e-Market, e-Service, etc.) Oftentimes used without the hyphen, the "e" originally stood for "electronic", as in "online". Today the term is used rather freely to describe any situation or solution that has made the migration from real world to the Internet.
exit page The last page a visitor views before leaving a Web site. Compare entry page and path through site.
file serverA file-storage device on a local area network (LAN) that is accessible to all users on the network. It is sophisticated, also serving as a manager of sorts, maintaining order as users request files and make changes to them.
hit Also called a page hit. The retrieval of any item, like a page or a graphic, from a Web server. For example, when a visitor calls up a Web page with four graphics, that's five hits, one for the page and four for the graphics. For this reason, hits often aren't a good indication of Web traffic.
HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)
HTTP(HyperText Transfer Protocol)
Internet A global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions.
Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to the global Internet community. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works exceedingly well.
Internet access providers Otherwise known as Internet service providers (ISP). These organizations allow other computer users to dial-in and connect to their Internet connection for a fee.
Internet commerce Another term for electronic commerce; sometimes used to refer to electronic commerce conducted on the Internet or World Wide Web instead of via private networks.
Internet host A computer that is directly connected to the Internet.
intranet A network based on TCP/IP protocols (an internet) belonging to an organization, usually a corporation, accessible only by the organization's members, employees, or others with authorization. An intranet's Web sites look and act just like any other Web sites, but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access.
IP address An identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the TCP/IP protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination.
ISP(Internet Service Provider)
knowledge management The intentional collection, classification, and dissemination of information about a company, its products, and its processes.
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) a set of protocols for accessing information directories.
ListservWhen e-mail is addressed to a LISTSERV mailing list, it is automatically broadcast to everyone on the list. The result is similar to a newsgroup or forum, except that the messages are transmitted as e-mail and are therefore available only to individuals on the list.
log file A file created by a Web or proxy server that contains all of the information regarding visitor access and related activity on that server. Sample entries from an Apache Common Log File, (which just happens to be one of the more abbreviated types of Web log file; others, including Apache Extended Common Log File format, contain much more information):
111.222.333.123 - Jones [01/Feb/1998:01:08:39 -0800] "GET /bannerad/ad.htm HTTP/1.0" 200 198
Field 1: User Address
IP or domain name of the user accessing the site.
Field 2: Domain (optional)
This field is used to log the domain for multi-homed web servers.
Field 3: User Authentication
Username of visitor who access the server
Field 4: Date/Time
Date and time the user accessed the site.
Field 5: GMT Offset
Number of hours from GMT (if this is +0000 it is logged in GMT time).
Field 6: Action
The particular operation of the hit (this must be in quotes).
Field 7: Return Code
The return code indicates whether or not the action was successful etc.
Field 8: Size
The size of the file sent.
managed hosting A Web hosting service in which the service provider manages the operation and oversight of all servers and assigns a dedicated service manager.
market A real or virtual space in which potential buyers and sellers come into contact with each other and agree on a medium of exchange.
Mosaic The World Wide Web client program developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). It was essentially the first graphical WWW browser.
NCSA ( National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Hosted at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, the NCSA is one of the five original centers in the National Science Foundation's Supercomputer Centers Program. Mosaic, the first Internet browser program and predecessor to the Netscape browser, was invented at NCSA.
online community Synonymous with virtual community, which is an electronic gathering place for people with common interests.
open source Generically, open source refers to a program in which the source code is available to the general public for use and/or modification from its original design free of charge, i.e., open. Open source code is typically created as a collaborative effort in which programmers improve upon the code and share the changes within the community. Open source sprouted in the technological community as a response to proprietary software owned by corporations.
page view A Web page that has been viewed by one visitor. Page views are often used in online advertising, where advertisers use the number of page views a site receives to determine where and how to advertise.
path through site The page-to-page course (path) a visitor takes through a Web site from the entry page to the exit page. See entry page and exit page.
permission marketing A marketing strategy that sends specific information only to persons who have indicated an interest in receiving information about the product or service being promoted.
Phishing The act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft.
Portal Commonly referred to as simply a portal, a Web site or service that offers a broad array of resources and services, such as e-mail, forums, search engines, and on-line shopping malls.
ProtocolAn agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices.
referrer (or referring page) URL of an HTML page that refers visitors to another Web site. The page a visitor was on just prior to the current page.
response time The amount of time a server requires to process one request.
return code (success code, fail code) A Web log file records whether a request to the Web server for delivery of data was successful or not, and why.
Possible "Success" codes are:
200 = Success: OK
201 = Success: Created
202 = Success: Accepted
203 = Success: Partial Information
204 = Success: No Response
300 = Success: Redirected
301 = Success: Moved
302 = Success: Found
303 = Success: New Method
304 = Success: Not Modified
scalablity A system's ability to be adapted to meet changing requirements.
search engine A program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found.
search expression The key word on which search engines perform searches, which can include instructions telling the search engine how to perform its search.
shared hosting A Web hosting arrangement in which a corporate Web site is on a server that hosts other Web sites simultaneously and is controlled by a third-party service provider.
static page A Web site that is static can only supply information that is written into the HTML and this information will not change unless the change is written into the source code.
Sticky When used in terms of a Web site, sticky refers to a site’s ability to keep visitors on the site once they have navigated there or encourage the visitor to return frequently (i.e., the visitors “stick” to the site).
subscription The delivery of specific information to a user's computer. Users provide information about what information to deliver, amount of information, and schedule for updates. More specific than a channel.
systems administrator An individual responsible for maintaining a multi-user computer system, including a local-area network (LAN). The system administrator is sometimes called the sysadmin or the systems administrator. Small organizations may have just one system administrator, whereas larger enterprises usually have a whole team of system administrators.
unmanaged hosting A system of server hosting in which the customer is responsible for maintaining and staffing all servers.
URL(Uniform Resource Locator)
usability testing The testing and evaluation of a company's Web site for ease of use by visitors.
visit All the activity of a single visitor as she cuts a path through a Web site.
W3C(World Wide Web Consortium) (http://www.w3.org)
web analytics A generic term meaning the study of the impact of a Web site on its users.
Web browser a software application used to locate and display Web pages.
Web client A computer that is connected to the Internet and used to download Web pages.
Web hosting A business relationship that provides the Internet access services of an ISP along with electronic commerce software, store space, and commerce experts.