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    1,2 - THE GUARDIAN WEEKLY Elementary (2)
    scratchga, hojiakbar kurs ishi, 8-sinf-ozbekiston-tarixi
    the seeds of plants such as wheat or maize
    ummit meeting
    grown at home and not imported
    developing countries
    money which a government gives to producers to make products cheaper
    locally grown
    poor countries without much industry
    the business of farming
    a terrible situation that kills a lot of people
    money or food which rich countries give to poor countries
    Scanning: Find the Information
    Look in the text and find this information as quickly as possible.
    Where was the G8 summit meeting last month?
    What percentage of working people in Africa work on farms?
    How much is cheap insurance worth to US grain exporters?
    How much cheaper than the world price is cotton exported by US producers?
    Which country receives more food aid? The Philippines or Zimbabwe?

    © onestopenglish.com 2002 | This page can be photocopied.
    The world’s rich nations miss a golden opportunity to back fair trade
    Level 1 | 
    Both the European Union and the
    United States give subsidies to their
    f a r m e r s. This means that they give
    money to their farmers, which makes it
    possible for the farmers to produce food
    at a cheaper price. It also means that
    they sometimes have too much food.
    When this happens, they often give this
    food to poorer countries in Africa and
    A s i a . This is called "food aid". But there
    is a problem with this food aid. W h e n
    cheap food from the EU and the US is
    sold in poor countries, the price of this
    food is much cheaper than the price of
    food grown by local farmers. The food
    aid doesn’t help the farmers at all
    because they cannot sell the food they
    produce at a fair price. They have to sell
    their products at a lower price and this
    means that they remain very poor.
    In a speech in October 2001, the British
    Prime Minister, Tony Blair, said that this
    situation should change. He said that
    the food situation in Africa was terrible
    and that the whole world had to work
    hard to help A f r i c a .
    So what was Britain's prime minister
    doing at the G8 summit meeting in
    France last month? A few weeks ago
    President Jacques Chirac did something
    very surprising. France was alwa y s
    against changing the European farm
    subsidy system, but President Chira c
    told the US government that if the
    Americans stopped subsidising their
    food exports to A f r i c a , Europe would do
    the same.
    This was an important offer. The We s t ’s
    a g r i c u l t u ral subsidies are a disaster for
    the developing world, and particularly
    for A f r i c a . 70% of working people in
    Africa work on farms, and most of the
    farmers there are very poor. One reason
    for this is that subsidised food from
    Europe and the US is much cheaper
    than locally grown food.
    So did Mr Blair welcome President
    C h i ra c ’s offer? No, he didn’t . The reason
    i s, of course, w e l l - k n o w n . George Bush
    receives a lot of support from the US
    a g r i c u l t u ral industry, and he was not
    willing to remove subsidies to farmers.
    S o, thanks to Mr Blair and his master
    President Bush, Africa will continue to
    s u f f e r. The basic problem is that the rich
    nations make world trade rules. Th e
    current world trade agreement says that
    the EU and the US are not allowed to
    subsidise food exports. But both the EU
    and the US use tricks to avoid this rule.
    The US gives exporters cheap insura n c e,
    for example. This is worth $7.7 billion to
    US grain exporters. This money means
    that US exporters can sell wheat and
    maize at a price 10% to 16% cheaper
    than the world price. They sell cotton at
    40% below the world price.
    Many countries give money to poor
    countries and the World Fo o d
    P r o g ramme can use this money to buy
    supplies in local markets and this helps
    local farmers. But the US sends
    subsidised food instead of money,
    saying that this programme will
    "develop markets for US products".
    The result is that the countries which
    receive this aid are not the poorest
    countries that need the aid most but the
    ones that could be good markets for
    American farm products. This is why, f o r
    e x a m p l e, the Philippines receives more
    US food aid than poor countries like
    M o z a m b i q u e, M a l a w i , Zambia and
    Z i m b a b w e.
    The US also sends food aid when it is
    least necessary. When the world price of
    wheat falls, the amount of food "aid"
    r i s e s. The programme that is meant to
    help the poor is in fact making them
    p o o r e r.
    The Guardian Weekly 
    2 0 - 3 - 0 3 , page 1 3
    The world's rich nations miss a golden
    o p p o rtunity to back fair trade

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