Name: ____________________________________________________________ Period: _____ VIRUSES AND DESTRUCTIVE PROGRAMS
Unit 6 Terminology Study Guide & Assignment
S3 Obj 1
Viruses 1. What is a virus?
A Virus is a computer program written to alter the way a computer operates without the permission or knowledge of the user.
2. Viruses can either be considered a __nuisance__ or ___destructive.__________
3. A virus can:
a) Corrupt files______________________________________________
b) Destroy data______________________________________________
c) Display irritating messages____________________________________________
e) Corrupt computer systems ______________________________________________
4. Virus Classifications
1. Trojan Horse
Has the appearance of having a useful and desired function. Secretly the program preforms undesired functions. Does not replicate itself.
A program that makes copies of itself through disk to disk or through email.
3. Bootsector Virus
Attaches itself to the first part of the hard disk that is read by the computer during the boot up process.
4. Macro Virus
Uses another application’s macro programming language to distribute themselves. The infect documents such as MS Word, Excel, etc.
5. Memory Resident Viruses
Viruses that reside in a computers RAM. They stay in memory after its initiating program closes.
6. Rootkit Virus
An undetectable virus which attempts to allow someone to gain control of a computer system. Disguised as operating system files.
Copies itself by creating multiple files of itself. It changes its signature making it had for antivirus software to detect.
8. Logic Bombs/Time Bombs
Programmed to initiate at a specific date or when a specific event occurs.
Spreading Viruses 5. Viruses spread because people distribute __infected________files through CD’s, emails and downloads from the ___Internet_______________.
6. Viruses have the ability to ___lurk__________ in a computer for ___days_________ or months, quietly ______replicating_____________ themselves.
7. Not knowing you have a virus makes it ___easier______ to ____spread__ the virus.
8. How viruses spread:
A virus may be lurking on untrustworthy websites. Just clicking on them may infect your computer.
Your computer may be infected through a network which spreads from another computer connected to that same network.
Keeping the networks anti-virus software updated can help the situation.
4. Infected boot disks
A virus can be spread if an infected disk is in your hard drive and you attempt to restart. Always know the origin of any media you use with your computer system.
Schemes to get your personal information from you through email messages pretending to be legitimate sites. When you visit these sites, spyware, adware and viruses are automatically installed on your computer.
6. Infected Software
Freeware of shareware may infect your computer system. One download from trusted sites.
The best way to protect yourself is to have a firewall and up to date antivirus software installed at all time.
8. Instant Messaging
Target for hackers--see it as an easy way to get people to click on links. Only chat with people you know and don’t follow links you don’t recognize.
4. Never open Email attachments without scanning them first
10. Install a Firewall
5. Set up Automatic Scans
11. Be prepared to lock down
6. Watch your downloads
Theft & Privacy 10. Tips on using passwords:
___Never write you’re your password; use unique passwords_____________________
b) ___Use at least 7 characters; use letters from a phrase_______________________
c) __Include punctuations or symbols; use upper and lower case letters_____________
Hacking 11. What is hacking? __Finding a weakness in a computer or computer network with the objective of doing damage or stealing personal information.______
12. What is the penalty for hacking? _____Fine or imprisonment depending on the seriousness_
13. How do hackers cost business money? ____downtime___ and___loss of data__________.
Internet Controls 14. Name and describe three types of controls to protect internet users:
a) __Firewalls: forms a barrier between networks_______________
b) _ Filters: controls what can be viewed in the Internet_________
c) __Parental Controls: Software allows parents to control what kids do on the Internet__
Freeware & Shareware 15. What is Freeware? ___Copyrighted software which is made available for use free of charge_for an unlimited time__
16. How is Shareware different than Freeware? _There is an eventual charge for the use of the software. The user may “try it out” for a certain period of time without charge.__Viruses & Destructive Programs
A computer virus is a computer program that can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another. The term "virus" is also commonly, but erroneously, used to refer to other types of malware, including but not limited to adware and spyware programs that do not have a reproductive ability.
A Trojan horse, or Trojan, is a type of malware that masquerades as a legitimate file or helpful program with the ultimate purpose of granting a hacker unauthorized access to a computer.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. Often, it uses a computer network to spread itself.
A dictionary attack uses a targeted technique of successively trying all the words in an exhaustive list called a dictionary to find out passwords on a computer system.
A type of computer virus that inserts its malicious code into executable files on a system
Short for malicious software, software designed specifically to damage or disrupt a system, such as a virus or a Trojan horse.
Adware is the common name used to describe software that is given to the user with advertisements embedded in the application.
Any software that covertly gathers user information through the user's Internet connection without his or her knowledge, usually for advertising purposes.
Freeware - Explain how Freeware is different than Shareware
Freeware is software downloaded at no charge to the user. There may be a charge for Shareware after a trial period.
Phishing & Spoofing Attacks
The act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft
In the realm of computers, the act of obtaining or attempting to obtain otherwise secure data by conning an individual into revealing secure information. Social engineering is successful because its victims innately want to trust other people and are naturally helpful.
The act of driving around in a vehicle with a laptop computer, an antenna, and an 802.11 wireless LAN adapter to exploit existing wireless networks