Customer feedback or forums, possibly on independent sites
Secondary data: (Articles, papers, news)
Types of Marketing Research:
Marketing Research Definition: Marketing Research is the systematic and objective process of identification, collection, analysis, dissemination, and use of information for the purpose of improving decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing.
Focus Group Definition: Focus Groups are small groups of people brought together and guided by a moderator through and unstructured, spontaneous discussion for the purpose of gaining information relevant to the research problem. Focus groups are used when the organization needs to gain information and seek solutions from unstructured and spontaneous issues.
A brand is described as:
'an identifiable product or service augmented in such a way that the buyer or user perceives relevant unique added values which match their needs most closely. Furthermore, its success results from being able to sustain these added values in the face of competition'.
So, Add-Value to influence perception, and sustainability of value to create experience.
Brands Online "On the World Wide Web, the brand is the experience and the experience is the brand".
To build successful online brands, organizations should consider how their proposition can build on these possible brand promises:
The promise of convenience – making a purchase experience more convenient that the real word, or for rivals.
The promise of achievement – to assist consumers in achieving their goals, for example supporting online investors in their decision or decision or supporting business people in their day-to-day work.
The promise of fun and adventure – this is clearly more relevant for B2C services.
The promise of self-expression and recognition – provided by personalization services such as Yahoo! Geocities where consumers can build their own Web Site.
The promise of belonging – provided by online communities.
Plus trust and reassurance
Success factors for brand sites
For some product (Drinks, household cleaning products) which we cannot sell online, is important to have online presence (Brand Site) in order to build experience and brand image successfully through:
Apply advertisements on publisher sites.
Brand Messages in paid search sites (Directions & Search engines).
Sponsorship of tools or sections of publisher sites.
Effective PR through editorial in publisher web.
Success factors for brand sites:
For some product (Drink, household cleaning products) which we cannot sell online, is important to have online presence (Brand site) in order to build experience and brand image successful through:
The internet allows for users of differential pricing: (different prices' model for same product based on customers, markets, or buying situation). E.g. iPhone use geographical pricing policy.
Increase Price transparency caused by aggregators and cyber-mediaries who increase customer knowledge through price comparison.
While the Internet allows cost reduction, but is important to:
Understand the potential impact of price reduction on (Sales, Market Share, Competition, Products image, Demand)
Justify the price reduction to avoid conflict with offline prices.
A company needs to review the price transparency toward aggregators:
Aggregators (Comparison search engines) show the price without spot other features.
What companies should do to avoid the misleading information caused by aggregators?
Educate markets about the limitations in aggregators (Incomplete coverage, limited information).
Highlight other brand's features to reduce emphasizes on cost as differentiator (fulfillment choice, quality, customer service).
Buy space in different sites to link customers to your site for this information above mentioned.
B2B Reverse auctions Vs. B2C forward auctions
Use B2B reverse auctions to reduce price.
Use B2C forward auction to increase profit.
Auctions and other methods as well help to identify price floor and price ceiling.
Use B2C forward auction helps to identify price sensitivity.
Reach: This is the potential audience of the e-commerce site. Reach can be increased by moving from a single site to representation with a large number of different intermediaries.
Richness: This is the depth or details of information which is both collected about the customer and provided to the customer. This is related to the product element of the mix.
Affiliation: This refers to whose interest the selling organization represents – consumers or suppliers. This particularly applies to retailers. It suggests that customers will favor retailers who provide them with the richest information on comparing competitive products.
New Channel Structures: Place concept online related to (sales promotion partnership).
Since distance is removed by the Internet technology, products have three choices:
While disintermediation provides opportunity of direct sales, more control, and more profit, it can threaten distribution by conflict with other channels.
Channel conflicts dependent on:
A communication channel only.
A distribution channel to intermediaries.
A direct sales channel to customers.
Any combination of the above.
(WAS LATE: MISSING TEXT)
Virtual Organizations: What Are They?
Virtual Organizations: Alternatives? MISSING INFORMATION (READ BOOK)
Promotion unfortunately has a range of meanings. It can be used to describe the marketing communications aspect of the marketing mix or, more narrowly, as in sales promotion. In its very broad sense it includes the personal methods of communications, such as face to face or telephone selling, as well as the impersonal ones such as advertising. When we use a range of different types of promotion – direct mail, exhibitions, publicity, etc we describe as the promotional mix.
Promotional ad serving on retail sites, e-alerts, personalized recommendations.
Real packaging is displayed online, virtual tours
Word of Mouth
Links, e-mail a friend, viral, affiliate marketing
Using Promotion to Vary the Mix 1. Reviewing new ways of applying each of the elements of the communications mix such as advertising, sales promotions, PR and direct marketing.
2. Assessing how the Internet can be used at different stages of the buying process.
3. Using promotional tools to assist in different stages of customer relationship management from customer acquisition to retention.
In a web context this includes gaining initial visitors to the site and gaining repeat visits through these types of communications techniques:
reminders in traditional media campaigns why a site is worth visiting, such as online offers and competitions;
direct e-mail reminders of site proposition – new offers;
Frequently updated content including promotional offers or information that helps your customer do their job or reminds them to visit.
ICT for Acquisition & Retention In a web context this includes gainingvisitors to the site and gaining repeat visits through these types of communication techniques:
Reminders in traditional Media campaigns why a site is wroth visiting, such as online offers.
Direct e-mail reminders of site proposition- new offers.
Frequently updated content including promotional offers or information that helps your customer do their job.
People, Process, & Physical Evidence
Are important elements of the services' marketing mix, & e-marketing mix.
3 P's are related to assess the effectiveness of WebQual & e-ServQual.
Physical evidence playing role in expressing the experience (tangibilization) that reflect the quality level.
Action: Use continuity-selling programs & focus on differentiating them by value.
Most Growable Customers (MGC):
Show potential to become valuable, their lifetime value is lower than valuables, but they are profitable in general.
General (lot. generalis - umumiy, bosh) - qurolli kuchlardagi harbiy unvon (daraja). Dastlab, 16-a.da Fransiyada joriy qilingan. Rossiyada 17-a.ning 2-yarmidan maʼlum. Oʻzbekiston qurolli kuchlarida G.
Objectives: Focus on their continuity of adoption.
Strategy: Focus on extension.
Action: Use cross-selling & focus on up-selling by recommendation, personalize e-mails and web offers.
Below Zero Customers (BZC):
Are unprofitable, those who have purchased once or never, providing very low lifetime value.
Objectives: Convert them into growables or minimize the investment on them.
Strategy: Focus on selection.
Action: use cross-selling & lower-cost by selling service online